Tutorial Course Descriptions

Detailed Syllabus

C-318 Nanostructures: Strategies for Self-Organized Growth (half-day)

 (The Materials Science of Small Things)

  • Learn about the primary classical and quantum effects which controllably alter the properties of increasingly small nanostructures.
  • Understand the mechanisms controlling self-assembly and self-organization during nanostructure growth.
  • Learn how to better design nanostructure growth processes.

The study of nanotechnology is pervasive across widespread areas including microelectronics, optics, magnetics, hard and corrosion resistant coatings, mechanics, etc. Progress in each of these fields depends upon the ability to selectively and controllably deposit nanoscale structures with specified physical properties. This, in turn, requires control -- often at the atomic level -- of nanostructure, nanochemistry, and cluster nano-organization.

Deceasing size scales of solid clusters can result in dramatic property changes due to both "classical" effects associated with changes in average bond coordination and, as cluster sizes become of the order of the spatial extent of electron wavefunctions, quantum mechanical effects. The course will start with examples including reduced melting points, higher vapor pressures, increased optical bandgaps, decreased magnetic hysteresis, and enhanced mechanical hardness. Essential fundamental aspects, as well as the technology, of nanostructure formation and growth from the vapor phase will be discussed and highlighted with "real" examples using insights obtained from both in-situ and post-deposition analyses.

Nanostructure case studies include:

  • examples of template, size, and coarsening effects: self-assembled Si/Si(001), Cu/Cu(001),TiN/TiN(001), TiN/TiN(111) nano-clusters,
  • examples of controlled template plus strain effects: self-organized Ge wires on Si(111), Ge wires on Si(187 72 81), Au chains on Si(553), InAs metal wires on GaAs(001), insulated metal wires on Si(111),
  • quantum dot engineering: formation, shape transformations, and ordering in self-organized SiGe/Si(001); InAs/GaAs(001), CdSe/ZnSe(001), PbSe/PbEuSe(111), Ag/Pt(111), and MnN/Cu(001) quantum dots,
  • examples of 3D nanostructures:(Ti,Ce)N/SiO2, TiBx/SiO2, and d-TaN/g-Ta2N/SiO2.


Topical Outline:

The course provides an understanding of:

  • the classical and quantum effects controlling the dramatic property changes observed in nanostructures as a function of cluster size and dimension (3D 2D 1D)
  • self-assembly and self-organization during film growth
  • the role of the substrate template and defect structures in mediating growth kinetics
  • the use of film stress to controllably manipulate nanostructure
  • other mechanisms (including surface segregation, surfactant effects, low-energy ion bombardment, cluster coarsening, etc) for controlling nanostructures
  • the design of nanostructures with specified properties.
Who Should Attend?

Scientists and engineers involved in deposition, characterization, or manufacturing/marketing of nanostructures and nanostructure deposition equipment.



Course Details:

1. Introduction
a. what is special about "nano" (semi-classical and quantum mechanical effects)?
b. examples: depressed melting points, increased vapor pressures, increased optical bandgaps, metal-semiconductor transition, heterogeneous catalysis, decreased magnetic hysteresis, enhanced hardness

2. Surface structure and processes: a review
a. surface energies: measurements and role in film growth
b. surface structure: examples of reconstruction and relaxation
c. terrace-step-kink structure: examples (STM)

3. The role of strain in mediating island and film growth
a. interfacial elastic strain energy due to lattice constant mismatch
b. relaxation mechanisms: elastic vs misfit disloc and surface energies
   1. strain-induced roughening, islanding, S-K growth: examples
c. strain-induced S-K quantum dots: examples (STM, XTEM)
   1. sub-critical fluctuations: examples (STM, XTEM)
   2. nucleation of quantum dots: examples (STM)
   3. self-limiting growth of quantum dots: examples (STM)

4. Nanostructure synthesis
a. Evaporation (thermal, electron-beam, and molecular beam) of 1D and 2D nanoclusters: STM, AFM, and TEM examples
   1. nanocluster size, shape, and spatial distributions
       • examples: Co/Si3N4(001), (In,Ga)As/GaAs(001), InAs/InP(001)
b. UHV-CVD and GS-MBE of 1D and 2D nanoclusters: STM and AFM 1. nanocluster size, shape, and spatial distributions
       • examples: (Si,Ge)/Si(001), (Si,Ge)/Si(001):P
c. Growth from solution via burst nucleation: TEM
   1. nanocluster size, shape, and spatial distributions
       • example: CdTe
d. Inverse micelle encapsulation of 2D nanoclusters: STM, TEM
    1. nanocluster size, shape, and spatial distributions
       • examples: Au/TiO2, Au/TiC, Au/a-C
e. dendrimer nanoparticle sequestration: TEM, fluorescence
    1. nanocluster size, shape, and spatial distributions
       • examples: Au/polyamidoamine (PAMAM), Pt/PAMAM
f. spin-coated nanopore and nanopillar structures
    1. nanocluster size, shape, and spatial distributions
       • example: Si nanopillar moth eye antireflective coating on solar cells
g. nanoimprint lithography (NIL)
    1. nanocluster size, shape, and spatial distributions
       • example: TiAu/Si(001)
h. Magnetron sputter deposition of 3D nanostructures: TEM, XTEM
    1. nanostructure size, shape, and spatial distributions
       • examples: (Ti,Ce)N/MgO(001)

5. Self-organized nanostructure formation: mechanisms and examples
a. Substrate template effects: mechanisms and examples
    1. 1D and 2D: Si/Si(001), Cu/Cu(001), TiN/TiN(001), TiN/TiN(111)
    2. coarsening: 2D TiN(001) islands and 3D Si(001) domes
    3. asymmetric templates: 1D Cu/Pd(011) wires
    4. surface termination effects: 3D vs 1D Pd/SnO2(101) wires
b. Substrate template plus strain effects
    1. 1D and 2D structures: Ge/Si(111), Ge/Si(187 72 81), Ag/Pt(997), Au/Si(553)
    2. Insulated metal wires: Fe/CaF/Si(111)
c. Quantum dot formation (a special case of template plus strain effects): mechanisms and shape transitions
    1. case study: Ge/Si(001) shape transitions vs coverage – pre-pyramids, pyramids, domes, superdomes
    2. pyramid quantum dot shape instabilities
    3. pyramids stable or metastable? Ge/Si(001)
    4. coarsening: CdSe/ZnSe(001)
    5. quantum dot engineering
    6. dislocation and discomensuration mediation: SiGe/Si(001), Ag/Pt(111)
    7. quantum dot superlattices: SiGe/Si(001), PbSe/PbEuTe(111)
d. 3D nanostructures
    1. interfacial segregation effects: columnar to equiaxed transition TiAlYN/steel, (Ti,Ce)N/SiO2, TiBx/SiO2
    2. vertical superlattices: (Ti,Ce)N/SiO2 superlattice structures via vacancy ordering: δ-TaN/γ-Ta2N/SiO2
    3. atomic shadowing effects: Si posts, chevrons, and chiral structures (helices)

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois
Joe Greene

is the D.B. Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, the Tage Erlander Professor of Materials Physics at Linkoping University, a Chaired Professor at the National Taiwan University of Science and Techology, and Past Director of the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois. The focus of his research has been the development of an atomic-level understanding of adatom/surface interactions during vapor-phase film growth in order to controllably manipulate microchemistry, microstructure, and physical properties. His work has involved film growth by all forms of sputter deposition (MBE, CVD, MOCVD, and ALE). He was President of the American Vacuum Society in 1989, a consultant for several research and development laboratories, and a visiting professor at several universities. Recent awards include receipt of the Aristotle Award from SRC (1998), the Adler Award from the American Physical Society (1998), Fellow of the American Vacuum Society (1993) and the American Physical Society (1998), the Turnbull Prize from the Materials Research Society (1999), Fellow of the Materials Research Society (2013), and the Mentor Award from SVC (2015). He was elected to the US National Academy of Engineering in 2003 and is the Editor-in-Chief of Thin Solid Films.

This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program
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