SVConnections May 2016
January 2018

SVC Election Results

The results for the recent Board of Directors election have been certified.  Congratulations to our newly elected Directors (listed in alphabetical order):
Jacob Bertrand , Eccrine Systems, Inc., USA
Dave Doerwald , IHI Hauzer Techno Coating B.V., The Netherlands
Gary Doll , University of Akron, USA
Jolanta E. Klemberg-Sapieha , Polytechnique Montréal, Canada 
Kurt J. Lesker IV , Kurt J. Lesker Company, USA

Fraunhofer FEP Was Twice Awarded "Innovator of the Year"

From  Fraunhofer FEP, November 9, 2017:
"The editors of DESIGN&ELEKTRONIK selected their first "Innovator of the Year" winners. The readers of the business magazine were asked to choose the companies with the most innovative ideas, which are needed to construct top products.

Fraunhofer FEP was awarded "Innovator of the Year" in two areas, the coating and functionalization of flexible glass and the innovations in OLED microdisplays and sensors.  The flexible glass research is conducted with Fraunhofer's German consortium partners SCHOTT AG, VON ARDENNE GmbH and tesa SE, in the publicly funded project, KONFEKT  Dr. Manuela Junghähnel and Dr. Uwe Vogel received the awards of DESIGN&ELEKTRONIK in Munich as representatives for the scientists of their institute and their consortium partners."  Dr. Junghähnel is an SVC Board member and chair of the SVC Emerging Technologies Technical Advisory Committee.


The WOW Factor- Semiconductor Fab Equipment Spending is Surging

From SEMI, December 12, 2017 by Christian G. Dieseldorff:
" The semiconductor industry has been there before, with large increases in investments followed by dramatic downturns. This time the industry will achieve a "WOW" with three consecutive years of fab investment growth, a pattern not observed since the mid-1990s. A diverse array of technology drivers promise more robust long-term growth, including Mobile applications, Internet of Things (IoT), Automotive & Robotics, Industrial,  Augmented Reality & Virtual Reality (AR&VR), Artificial Intelligence (AI), and 5G networking.

The World Fab Forecast report by SEMI is modeling that fab equipment spending in 2017 will total US$57 billion or 41% year-over-year (YoY) growth. In 2018, spending is expected to shoot up another 11% to US$63 billion. Following historic large investments, some slowdown is expected for 2019.   

In 2017 the surge of investments is in Korea, due mainly to Samsung. Samsung is expected to end the year with spending up by 128% in 2017 from US$8 billion to US$18 billion. No single company has invested so much in a year.
Source: SEMI
Image: SEMI  

Piezoelectrics Stretch Their Potential with a Method for Flexible Sticking

From AIP Publishing, Journal of Applied Physics, October 25, 2017:

"Researchers at Pennsylvania State University have demonstrated a new technique for making piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) by connecting a sample of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin films to flexible polymer substrates. They grew polycrystalline PZT thin films on a silicon substrate with a zinc oxide release layer, to which they added a thin layer of polyimide. They then used acetic acid to etch away the zinc oxide, releasing the 1-micrometer thick PZT film with the polyimide layer from the silicon substrate. The PZT film on polyimide is flexible while possessing enhanced material properties compared to the films grown on rigid substrates." READ FULL ARTICLE.

New Microscope Sets a Record for Visualizing Surface Wetting Properties

From Aalto University (Finland), November 27, 2017:
"Aalto University researchers have developed a measurement technique called Scanning Droplet Adhesion Microscopy (SDAM) to understand and characterize the wetting properties of superhydrophobic materials. SDAM is extremely sensitive and 1000 times more precise than the current state-of-the-art wetting characterization methods. It also has the ability to measure minuscule features and inconsistencies of surfaces with microscale resolution. Existing instruments for measuring droplet adhesion forces only detect forces down to a micronewton level - not sensitive enough for superhydrophobic surfaces. "   READ FULL ARTICLE.

Focused Ion Beam Creates New Devices to Measure Nanoparticles 

From  NIST, December 14, 2017 :
" Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated that a standard ion-beam technique can be fine-tuned to make structures with depths controlled to within the diameter of a single silicon atom. The NIST team used this standard machining technique to fabricate a nanofluidic staircase which separates nanoparticles by size. The device is also a reference material to accurately measure nanoparticle size and compare it to optical brightness, which could aid in the quality control of consumer products.  The nanofluidic devices, which have the potential for mass production, could become a new laboratory standard for determining nanoparticle size. READ FULL ARTICLE.
Source:   NIST
Image: NIST

Making Glass Invisible -- A Nanoscience-based Disappearing Act

From  Brookhaven National Laboratory, October 31, 2017 :

" Scientists at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)-a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory-have demonstrated a method for reducing the surface reflections from glass surfaces to nearly zero by etching tiny nanoscale features into them.

The nanoscale features have the effect of making the refractive index change gradually from that of air to that of glass, thereby avoiding reflections. The ultra-transparent nanotextured glass is antireflective over a broad wavelength range (the entire visible and near-infrared spectrum) and across a wide range of viewing angles. Reflections are reduced so much that the glass essentially becomes invisible.

A Nanotransistor Made of Graphene Nanoribbons

From Empa (Switzerland), November 29, 2017 by Karin Weinmann:

" Graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide, so-called graphene nanoribbons, have special electrical properties that make them promising candidates for the nanoelectronics of the future: while graphene is a conductive material, it can become a semiconductor in the form of nanoribbons. This means that it has a sufficiently large energy or band gap in which no electron states can exist: it can be turned on and off - and thus may become a key component of nanotransistors. Empa researchers in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz and the University of California at Berkeley have now succeeded in growing ribbons exactly nine atoms wide with a zigzag or so called regular armchair edge from precursor molecules which are vacuum evaporated. Researchers then integrate the graphene ribbons into nanotransistors .READ FULL ARTICLE.

S ource: Empa
Image:  Empa  

Scientists Get First Close-ups of Finger-like Growths that Trigger Battery Fires

From SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, October 26, 2017:

" Scientists from Stanford University and the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have captured the first atomic-level images of finger-like growths called dendrites that can pierce the barrier between battery compartments and trigger short circuits or fires. This is the first study to examine the inner lives of batteries with cryo-electron microscopy, or cryo-EM, a technique whose ability to image delicate, flash-frozen proteins and other "biological machines" in atomic detail was honored with the 2017 Nobel Prize in chemistry.  The new images reveal that each lithium metal dendrite is a long, beautifully formed six-sided crystal - not the irregular, pitted shape depicted in previous electron microscope shots. " READ FULL ARTICLE.

Source:  SLAC

Prototype Shows How Tiny Photodetectors Can Double Efficiency

From University of California, Riverside, October 9, 2017, by Iqbal Pittalwala:

" Physicists at the University of California, Riverside have developed a photodetector by combining two distinct inorganic materials and producing quantum mechanical processes that could revolutionize the way solar energy is collected. Lab researchers stacked two atomic layers of tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) on a single atomic layer of molybdenum diselenide (MoSe 2 ). Such stacking results in properties vastly different from those of the parent layers, allowing for customized electronic engineering at the tiniest possible scale.

Physicists observed that when a photon strikes the WSe
2 layer, it knocks loose an electron, freeing it to conduct through the WSe 2 . At the junction between WSe 2 and MoSe 2 , the electron drops down into MoSe 2 . The energy given off then catapults a second electron from the WSe 2 into the MoSe 2 , where both electrons become free to move and generate electricity. In the experiment, the waste energy instead creates another electron, doubling its efficiency. READ FULL ARTICLE.

Butterfly-inspired Photovoltaics Enhances Light Absorption by Up to 200 Percent

From Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany), October 19, 2017:
" The wings of the butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae have nanostructures (nanoholes) that help absorb light over a wide spectrum far better than smooth surfaces. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have now succeeded in transferring these nanostructures to solar cells and, thus, enhancing their light absorption rate by up to 200 percent.

The scientists
reproduced the butterfly's nanostructures in the silicon absorbing layer of a thin-film solar cell. Compared to a smooth surface, the absorption rate of perpendicular incident light increases by 97% and rises continuously until it reaches 207% at an angle of incidence of 50 degrees. READ FULL ARTICLE.

Stretching to Perfection of 2D Semiconductors

From U.S. Department of Energy, November 14, 2017:
" Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have developed a new method to controllably induce up to 1 percent strain due to stretching and 0.2 percent strain due to compression in 2-D tungsten diselenide (WSe2). In this study, the researchers grew a semiconductor at a high temperature on different substrates with mismatched thermal properties. Upon cooling, these substrates contracted more or less than the semiconductor.

If the substrate contracted more, the 2-D semiconductor film was in compression. When the substrate contracted less, the crystal structure of the 2-D semiconductor film was stretched. Stretching the film produced a novel change in the electronic properties of the film, and the material changed from being an "indirect" to a "direct" bandgap material which resulted in the strained material emitting light with the same amount of energy (this is an increase in photoluminescence efficiency).

A Sputtering Step Closer to Cheaper Solar Cells

From  A*STAR (Singapore), October 19, 2017:
" In the search for alternatives to silicon-based solar cells, A*STAR researchers are investigating a new material that is cheaper and easier to make, and could lead to better performing solar cells. A cheaper alternative to silicon is cadmium telluride; however, it is highly toxic and known to cause cancer. This spurred researchers at the A*STAR Institute of Materials Research & Engineering to investigate a copper-zinc-tin-sulfide (CZTS) compound, which offers the optical and electrical properties required in solar cells, but is made from non-toxic, widely available materials that are cheaper than silicon to process.

A technique called quaternary sputtering was used to grow thin films of CZTS, where a single target made from CZTS was used as a source for depositing the film. This method offers several advantages over other deposition methods, including excellent uniformity over large areas and reduced reliance on toxic precursors.
Source: A*STAR
Image: A*STAR
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Thin Film Research
OHanlonMember Celebrations

Happy birthday to the Society's newest octo-genarian!  John O'Hanlon celebrated his 80th birthday on December 1.

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Society of Vacuum Coaters Foundation

Founding Principle: The Society of Vacuum Coaters recognizes that in order to sustain its growth, it is important to attract young, well trained individuals to the field of Vacuum Coatings.

The SVC Foundation pursues this principle by providing scholarships to well qualified students planning to enter fields related to vacuum coatings, and/or providing stipends for travel expenses to attend the annual SVC Technical Conference, usually to present technical papers. The Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC), the SVCF's founder, and AIMCAL, an organization committed to advancing vacuum roll-coating technology, and their members, provides support for the Foundation to pursue these goals.

Since its inception in 2002, the SVCF has awarded more than 50 scholarships and travel awards totaling over $180,000 to students from 18 countries. Our support can really have an impact in the life of these students; quoting a recent award recipient:

"Not only does the scholarship give the gift of financial support and the possibility to continue learning, it also gives those that have a passion for vacuum coating the blessing of attending such a wonderful program [SVC TechCon] to network and further their knowledge."

Inviting scholarship recipients to the SVC TechCon is an important element of the overall strategy for attracting new talent to our industry. Scholarship beneficiaries carry a special identification on the TechCon badge and we encourage you to meet them and make them feel welcome.

Scholarship Applications must be postmarked by November 30th of each year.

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SVConnections Contributing Editors: 
Carl M. Lampert, SVC Technical Director 
Joyce Lampert

Society of Vacuum Coaters 
PO Box 10628
Albuquerque, NM 87184

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