SVConnections May 2016
February 2018

Single Metalens Focuses All Colors of the Rainbow in One Point

From  Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, by Leah Burrow, January 1, 2018:
"A team of researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) has developed the first single lens that can focus the entire visible spectrum of light - including white light - in the same spot and in high resolution. This has only ever been achieved in conventional lenses by stacking multiple lenses. The flat metalens uses arrays of titanium dioxide nanofins to equally focus wavelengths of light and eliminate chromatic aberration.


Tweaking Quantum Dots Powers-Up Double-Pane Solar Windows

From Los Alamos National Laboratory, January 2, 2018:
"Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. It's all made possible by a new window architecture which utilizes two different layers of low-cost quantum dots tuned to absorb different parts of the solar spectrum. The key to this advance is "solar-spectrum splitting" which allows one to process separately higher- and lower-energy solar photons.  READ FULL ARTICLE

A Graphene Zener-Klein Transistor Cooled by a Hyperbolic Substrate

From Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain (France):

"Researchers in the optical and mesoscopic physics teams from the Pierre Aigrain Laboratory (CNRS / ENS / UPMC / Paris Diderot University) Physics department discovered a new cooling mechanism concerning electronic components made of graphene deposited on boron nitride. The efficiency of this mechanism allowed them to reach electric intensities at the intrinsic limit of the laws of conduction. The new cooling mechanism is 10 times more efficient than basic heat diffusion. This new mechanism, which exploits the two-dimensional nature of the materials, opens a "thermal bridge" between the graphene sheet and the substrate." READ FULL ARTICLE.

An Exotic State of Matter Discovered in 2-D Material

From U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, December 29, 2017:
"After flaking a single layer of tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) off a larger crystal, scientists used it in a specially designed transistor. The transistor allowed electrical transport measurements. In the experiments, electrical current moved only at the edges.

This is the first of a new family of materials that can be used to explore the physics of topological insulators. These insulators are an odd state of matter. The material's interior doesn't conduct electrons, but the edges do. It opens the door to tailoring topological electronic properties by stacking different thin sheets, or 2-D materials.

Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition Advances for Device Applications 

From  Advanced Science News, December 21, 2017 by Sandra Kalveram :
" Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a promising platform technology to deposit functional polymer for the extension of application ranges and development of diverse devices. iCVD is a polymer deposition process whereby both polymer synthesis and film formation occur simultaneously on the surface of the substrate. This one-step fabrication method successfully achieves surface modifications without changing bulk properties of the substrate, rendering the process favorable for biological and electronic applications. The deposition of polymer thin film by this iCVD technique serves as a versatile tool for the synthesis of functional polymers directly from monomers in vapor phase. READ FULL ARTICLE.

Atomically Thin Perovskites are a Boost for Future Electronics

From  the International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA, Japan), December 26, 2017 :

" Researchers at WPI-MANA ( World Premier International Research Center Initiative - MANA) at NIMS (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) have developed the world's highest performance dielectric nanofilms using atomically thin perovskites. This technology may revolutionize the next-generation of electronics. They created high-performance dielectric nanofilms using 2D perovskite nanosheets (Ca2Nam−3NbmO3m+1; m = 3-6) as building blocks. Perovskite oxides offer tremendous potential for controlling their rich variety of electronic properties including high-κ dielectric and ferroelectric. " READ FULL ARTICLE.

Gen 10 and Larger Flat Panel Display Capacity to Grow at 59 Percent CAGR to 2022

From  IHS Markit, December 5, 2017:

" With BOE, China Star, LG Display and Foxconn expected to build seven new Generation 10.5 (2,940 mm x 3,370 mm) factories by 2020, Gen 10 and larger fab flat panel display (FPD) capacity is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 59 percent between 2017 and 2022, according to IHS Markit. The majority of all new incremental capacity for producing FPD televisions and other large area applications will be added at Gen 10.5 in the future. The new Gen 10.5 fabs will install 735,000 substrates per month of capacity by the end of 2022. This is enough capacity to produce more than 60 million 65-inch televisions a year.

According to the Display Supply Demand & Equipment Tracker, FPD equipment spending will reach a record high of more than $20 billion in 2018, of which new Gen 10.5 factories are a major contributing factor.

S ource: IHS Markit
Image:  IHS Markit  

Ultrathin Multifunctional Hybrid Coatings and Processes

From R&D Magazine, December 2017:

General Motors with co-developer Forge Nano were 2017 R&D 100 Mechanical/Materials Award winners for their new ultrathin multifunctional hybrid coatings and processes.

The majority of battery failure initiates from active material surfaces in the electrodes. Conventional coating technologies, such as chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition and wet chemistry, typically generate non-uniform coating particularly on nano-sized particles. The thickness control becomes difficult, and the thicker coating typically induces high impedance.

To tackle this challenge, General Motors-a pioneer in applying surface coating using the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technique-has developed several ultrathin multifunctional hybrid coatings and processes. These ultrathin (thickness < 5 nm) multifunctional coatings solve critical issues involved with gas generation, manganese dissolution induced capacity loss and safety issue associated with polymeric separators. Forge Nano has developed the technologies that enable scale-up production and commercialization of this innovation for both automotive and non-automotive applications.

Source:  R&D Magazine
Image:  R&D Magazine

Advanced Multi-junction Solar Cells Deliver High Efficiency, Reduced Costs for Space

From Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, January 3, 2018 by Marisa Alia-Novobilski:

" A collaborative effort between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Materials and Manufacturing and Space Vehicles Directorates, the Space Industrial Base Working Group and SolAero Technologies has resulted in state-of-the art, multi-junction solar cells destined to reduce costs and increase power efficiency for military space applications. These cells provide 15 percent more power than current state-of-practice solar cells of the same size. To solve the efficiency and mass needs of the space community, the collaboration led to the development and refinement of a new cell architecture that takes advantage of an upside-down growth process to manufacture multi-junction cells. The process results in what are called Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) solar cells, which are more efficient and a lighter weight than multi-junction cells currently in use. READ FULL ARTICLE.

Polymers Based on Boron?

From Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg (Germany), January 18, 2018 by Robert Emmerich:
" The construction of a polymer from a chain of boron atoms is currently more science fiction than science - this is the dream of Würzburg Chemistry Professor Holger Braunschweig, who has just received a 1.5 million Euro grant from German Research Foundation's (DFG) Reinhart Koselleck program to make boron polymers a reality. The research team recently set their sights on the production of polymers based on chains of boron atoms. The as-yet-unknown boron polymers are expected to have highly unusual and useful properties - higher electrical conductance than polymers commonly used in the organic electronics industry being just one example.

Prof. Braunschweig hopes to develop efficient synthetic strategies to boron polymers. In this respect it is critical to prevent the boron chains from collapsing in on themselves and forming clusters - a tendency that the element boron is famous for. The research team has come up with five promising strategies to form the desired chains. If successful, they will have discovered a fundamentally new class of materials, the potential applications of which could be immense.

2D Tin (Stanene) Without Buckling: A Possible Topological Insulator

From Nagoya University (Japan), January 19, 2018:
" A n international research team led by Nagoya University involving Aix-Marseille University (France), the Max Planck Institute in Hamburg (Germany) and the University of the Basque country (Spain) has unveiled the first truly planar sample of stanene: single sheets of tin (Sn) atoms. Planar stanene is hotly tipped as an extraordinary electrical conductor for high technology. Because of relatively strong spin-orbit interactions for electrons in heavy elements, single-layer tin is predicted to be a "topological insulator," also known as a quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator.

Individual tin atoms were slowly deposited onto silver, known as epitaxial growth. Crucially, the stanene layer did not form directly on top of the silver surface. Instead, as shown by core-level spectroscopy, the first step was the formation of a surface alloy (Ag2Sn) between the two species. Then, another round of tin deposition produced a layer of pure, highly crystalline stanene atop the alloy.

Construction Economists Predict Further Expansion in Buildings and Glass Through 2018

From USGlass, Metal & Glazing Magazine, December, 2017, by Nick St. Denis:
" Most nonresidential building segments are poised for continued growth in 2018, while multifamily construction is easing back but remaining resilient after a half-decade spike, according to Dodge Data & Analytics' new 2018 outlook report.  The total construction industry experienced increases from 11 to 13 percent per year from 2012 through 2015.  Starts advanced 5 percent in 2016 and are estimated to rise 4 percent in 2017.  Looking ahead, Dodge projects 3-percent growth in construction in 2018.  Prospects are positive for non-residential segments that use large amounts of glass - particularly in the commercial and institutional categories. READ FULL ARTICLE.
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NCCAVS 39th Annual Equipment Exhibition

February 22, 2018
San Jose, California

The NCCAVS sponsors an Annual Equipment Exhibition to showcase products and services of companies supporting vacuum-related industries. Attracting approximately 100+ exhibitors and ~700 attendees, the NCCAVS Annual Equipment Exhibition is the largest sponsored by any AVS Chapter.

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Society of Vacuum Coaters Foundation

Founding Principle: The Society of Vacuum Coaters recognizes that in order to sustain its growth, it is important to attract young, well trained individuals to the field of Vacuum Coatings.

The SVC Foundation pursues this principle by providing scholarships to well qualified students planning to enter fields related to vacuum coatings, and/or providing stipends for travel expenses to attend the annual SVC Technical Conference, usually to present technical papers. The Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC), the SVCF's founder, and AIMCAL, an organization committed to advancing vacuum roll-coating technology, and their members, provides support for the Foundation to pursue these goals.

Since its inception in 2002, the SVCF has awarded more than 50 scholarships and travel awards totaling over $180,000 to students from 18 countries. Our support can really have an impact in the life of these students; quoting a recent award recipient:

"Not only does the scholarship give the gift of financial support and the possibility to continue learning, it also gives those that have a passion for vacuum coating the blessing of attending such a wonderful program [SVC TechCon] to network and further their knowledge."

Inviting scholarship recipients to the SVC TechCon is an important element of the overall strategy for attracting new talent to our industry. Scholarship beneficiaries carry a special identification on the TechCon badge and we encourage you to meet them and make them feel welcome.

Scholarship Applications must be postmarked by November 30th of each year.

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SVConnections Contributing Editors: 
Carl M. Lampert, SVC Technical Director 
Joyce Lampert

Society of Vacuum Coaters 
PO Box 10628
Albuquerque, NM 87184

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