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Education



On Location Education Program

Take Advantage of the Opportunity of Bringing High-Quality, Practical Tutorials in PVD Processing and Vacuum Technology to a Facility That You Select!

The SVC On Location Program provides:

  • Instructors who are recognized professionals in vacuum technology and PVD processing

  • Practical information that will assist your staff in the R&D and manufacturing environment

  • Convenient scheduling

  • Cost-effective education by eliminating time-away-from-work, travel expenses, and individual tutorial attendee fees.

Program Objectives
The SVC Charter states that education shall be disseminated both to members and non-members alike in order to attain an expanded and more efficient use of the methods, processes, and technologies of vacuum coating. The SVC makes available On Location Tutorials to any interested organization. Subject to instructor-availability and certain other conditions, organizations can request any of the following SVC tutorials be brought to their location.

Interested in Further Information? Costs, Arrangements, etc. Contact SVC!

SVC Education Director
Scott Walton
Phone: 703/350-5825
scott.walton@svc.org

Tutorials that are available for On Location presentation are listed below. For a detailed tutorial description, and biographical sketch of the instructor, you may click on the tutorial title. All half-day tutorials will be presented as full-day tutorials when presented via the On Location Program.

Tutorial Titles

VT-201 High Vacuum Systems and Operations
V-202 Vacuum System Gas Analysis
VT-203 Residual Gas Analyzers and Analysis
V-204 Vacuum Systems Materials and Operations
V-207 Operation and Maintenance of Production Vacuum Systems
V-209 Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology and Vacuum Gauging
V-210 Pumps Used in Vacuum Technology
V-211 Vacuum Hardware and Vacuum Leak Detection
V-212 Vacuum System Design
VT-220 Practical Guide to Vacuum System Operation Using a Trainer System
VT-230 Design and Specification of Vacuum Deposition Systems
M-102 Introduction to Ellipsometry
M-110 Introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
M-120 Design of Experiments for R & D
M-201 Flexible Electronics
M-205 The Craftsmanship of Ophthalmic Coatings
M-210 Introduction to Solid-State Thin Film Batteries
M-220 Thin Film Superconductor Tapes
C-103 An Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processes
C-203 Sputter Deposition (two – day course)
C-204 Basics of Vacuum Web Coating
C-205 Introduction to Optical Coating Design
C-207 Evaporation as a Deposition Process
C-208 Sputter Deposition for Industrial Applications
C-210 Introduction to Plasma Processing Technology
C-211 Sputter Deposition onto Flexible Substrates
C-212 Troubleshooting for Thin Film Deposition Processes
C-216 Practical Design of Optical Thin Films
C-217 Practical Production of Optical Thin Films
C-218 Advanced Design of Optical Thin Films
C-220 Introduction to Two-Dimensional Materials
C-230 PVD Processing of Plastics for Better Protection, Reflection, and Decoration
C-240 Fundamentals of Ion Beam Sputtering
C-250 Introduction to Pulsed Laser Deposition
C-260 Organic Electronics - The Future is Bright
C-270 Coatings, Thin Films and Surface Solutions for Biomedical Applications: An overview of market trends, synthesis and characterization
C-280 Thermal Spray Technology
C-304 ITO and Other Transparent Conductive Coatings: Fundamentals, Deposition, Properties, and Applications
C-306 Non-Conventional Plasma Sources and Methods in Processing Technology
C-308 Tribological Coatings
C-309 Cathodic Arc Deposition (half day)
C-310 Sputtering
C-311 Thin Film Nucleation, Growth, and Microstructure Evolution
C-314 Plasma Modification of Polymer Materials and Plasma Web Treatment
C-315 Reactive Sputter Deposition
C-317 Reactive Sputter Deposition
C-318 Nanostructures: Strategies for Self-Organized Growth (half-day)
C-322 Characterization of Thick Films, Thin Films, and Surfaces
C-323 Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS)
C-324 Atmospheric Plasma Technologies (half day)
C-326 Manufacture of Precision Evaporated Coatings
C-329 Properties and Applications of Tribological and Decorative Coatings
C-330 Introduction to Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies (half day)
C-332 Zinc Oxide-Based and Other TCO Alternatives to ITO: Materials, Deposition, Properties and Applications
C-333 Practice and Applications of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
C-336 Transparent Gas Permeation Barriers on Flexible Substrates
C-337A ITO and Alternative TCO: From Fundamentals to Controlling Properties
C-338 Application of Reactive Sputtering
C-340 Plastic Optics - Coatings and Antireflective Structures
C-342 Thin Film Photovoltaic Solar Cells
C-343 From Basic Aspects to Industrial Components and Applications in HIPIMS Technology
B-101 Creating a Business from your Idea, Product or Service
B-110 Getting the Most Value out of Marketing without Spinning your Wheels
B-120 Introduction to Patents and Trademarks
B-130 Doing Business in the U.S.A.




VT-201 High Vacuum Systems and Operations

This day-long short course is intended for those who wish to understand the operation of mechanical, diffusion, and cryo pump systems, how materials are chosen, and how water vapor is pumped efficiently during the roughing cycle. It will conclude with a discussion of several diagnostic or problem solving techniques. After completion, participants should be able to explain the operation of diffusion, and cryo pumped systems; have a basic understanding of vacuum materials; understand how water vapor is pumped without condensing on interior surfaces, and have thought about some approaches to solving problems with non-performing systems.

Topical Outline:

Introduction to vacuum systems

  • Rotary mechanical pumps
  • Diffusion pumps and systems
  • Cryogenic pumps and systems
  • Turbomolecular pumps and systems

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd edition, John O’Hanlon (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John F. O’Hanlon, Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-202 Vacuum System Gas Analysis

This tutorial is intended for those who wish to understand how to analyze the performance of a vacuum system. Basic vacuum gauges that measure pressure in the low vacuum and in the high vacuum region will be described. Residual gas analyzers provide a useful method of analyzing the performance of a system and how various components are operating by looking at the partial pressures of individual gases. The class concludes with a discussion of leak detection: when it should be attempted and how to detect leaks with a pressure gauge, an RGA, and a mass spectrometer leak detector.

Topical Outline:

Gas laws

  • Gas flow
  • Vacuum gauges
  • Residual gas analyzers
  • Leak detection

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd edition, John O’Hanlon (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John F. O’Hanlon, Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


VT-203 Residual Gas Analyzers and Analysis

(New Course)

This day-long short course is intended for those who wish to understand the operation and use of residual gas analyzers and helium-based leak detectors. The class will be divided into several sections, beginning with background concepts needed to understand their operation; that will be followed by a description of the rga instrument; analyzing its spectra; how materials, components, and gauge location affect its results; a description of leak detectors; instrument sampling techniques, and some suggestions for their use in problem solving.

Topical Outline:
  • Residual Gas Analyzers
  • Analysis of Mass Spectra
  • Effects of materials and head location
  • Leak Detectors
  • Sampling Techniques

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd edition, John O’Hanlon (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John F. O’Hanlon, Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-204 Vacuum Systems Materials and Operations

This tutorial course is intended for those who wish to learn how diffusion and cryo pump systems operate, how to choose materials for vacuum use, and how to pump water vapor properly during the rough pumping cycle. At the end of this tutorial, a participant should be able to explain the operation of diffusion, and cryo pumped systems; understand how materials are chosen for use in vacuum, and how to rough pump water vapor without producing condensation.

Topical Outline:

  • Introduction
  • Rotary mechanical pumps
  • Diffusion pumps and systems
  • Cryogenic pumps and systems
  • Materials suitable for vacuum use
  • Methods for rough pumping water vapor.

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd edition, John O’Hanlon (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John F. O’Hanlon, Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-207 Operation and Maintenance of Production Vacuum Systems

(The course is a revised and updated version of V-207)

This tutorial is designed to teach the basic fundamentals of vacuum technology to technicians, equipment operators, line process operators, and maintenance personnel. This tutorial will address how to use and maintain an existing vacuum effectively, not how to design a system. The introduction will consist of a very basic explanation of what a vacuum is and how it is attained and proceeds to an explanation of the three gas flow regimes (i.e., viscous, transition, and molecular flow). This is followed by a description of the types of pumps used in the viscous flow region (e.g., mechanical displacement pumps, venturi/suction pumps, and sorption pumps). Types of high vacuum pumps are next discussed; these include diffusion pumps, turbopumps, and cryopumps. Presented next is a guide for selecting a pressure gauge which includes a description of various types of gauges and details their useful pressure range and measurement precision.
Topical Outline:

  • Introduction to vacuum
  • Explanation of the three gas flow regimes
  • Viscous flow pumps
  • High vacuum pumps
  • Guide for selecting a pressure gauge
  • Care and maintenance of pumps and vacuum systems, including both compressible “rubber” gasket and metal gasket systems
  • Evaluating system performance: pumpdown rate and leak-up rate
  • Leak detection and correction
  • Cleaning and conditioning of vacuum components and system
  • Operation of vacuum systems: crossover pressure, interlocks, and safety
  • Applications of vacuum systems for vacuum coating
  • Pumpdown and outgassing
  • Descriptions of other vacuum related tutorials presented by SVC

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Robert (Bob) A. Langley, Oak Ridge Scientific Consultants


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-209 Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology and Vacuum Gauging

This one-day course is designed to provide a foundation necessary to understand general scientific concepts of vacuum technology, and expands into a discussion of the design of use of vacuum gauges. A time for lunch generally separates these two content areas. The course can be customized somewhat to focus on content that may be of particular importance to a group of students.

The morning content begins with a brief history of vacuum technology, starting at about the time of Galileo. The course proceeds with a description of the differences between the development of the physical properties of pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of gas - as described in the historic “Gas Laws,” and continues with a description of the difference and importance of what is now known as the “Kinetic Theory” of gases. The discussion continues describing how gas molecules move from one place to another in a vacuum system, the parameters of molecular vs. viscous flow, finally describing the parameters of conductance and pumping speed. With these parameters established, the foundations of an equation to calculate the pump-down time are presented and examples given. The limitations of this simple equation are presented, which leads into a discussion of the critical importance that outgassing – from within the chamber - has on the ability of a chamber to attain a desired vacuum pressure within a desired time.

The afternoon content describes typical gauges used in vacuum technology. This content begins with a discussion of the importance of understanding the concept of precision of pressure measurements, and the importance of knowing when high-precision vs. low-precision measurements are required. This is compared to other situations when when a simple, yet accurate, trend analysis may be appropriate and/or preferred. Discussion continues with review of the difference between measuring an actual pressure (in force per unit area) and measuring some other parameter - and relating it back to a force per unit area. The first category of vacuum gauges discussed are manometers (Hg-type, diaphragm, Bourdon, capacitive, and piezoresistive manometers). The second category of gauges includes thermal gauges (thermocouple- and Pirani-type gauges). The final gauge category is ionization gauges (hot-filament and cold-cathode types). The course concludes with a discussion of partial-pressure gauges, with the majority of the discussion being an introduction to the instrumentation and use of residual-gas analyzers, primarily of the quadrupole type.

Instructor: Timothy Gessert, Gessert Consulting, LLC


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-210 Pumps Used in Vacuum Technology

This one-day course is designed to overview pumps typically used in the main stream of vacuum technology. Although the content of the course is most optimally presented when preceded by the one-day course on Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology and Vacuum Gauges, it can often be customized to provide necessary framework and/or background for the concepts and discussion presented.

Course presents an overview of the 3 basic types of physical pumping mechanisms (Positive Displacement, Momentum Transfer, and Capture). Vacuum pumps used in typical vacuum applications are discussed as examples of each pumping mechanism. Discussion also provides a baseline description of the types of maintenance activities that can be expected when using each specific type of vacuum pump. The section on positive-displacement pumps begins with a detailed discussion of the historic oil-sealed, rotary-vane pump. This pump is often familiar to most of the students, it remains widely used in may industry applications, and therefore its description provides a useful baseline for many of the terms that will be used to describe the other types of pumps. The discussion on oil-sealed pumps also describes development and use of modern vacuum-pump fluids and greases, and their proper selection and use. Discussion then moves to positive-displacement dry pumps (blower pumps, claw compressors, screw pumps, piston pumps, diaphragm pumps), with particular emphasis placed on the development, applications, and maintenance of the design, use, and maintenance of modern scroll pumps. The next category of pump discussed are momentum transfer pumps, including the historic diffusion pump, as well as the modern turbomolecular, drag, and regenerative pumps. The final category of pumps is capture pumps. This discussion includes a quick review of the historic bulk-getter pumps (e.g., Titanium sublimation) as well as modern non-evaporating getter (NEG) pumps. Sputter-ion pumps are next discussed, but the detail level of this discussion is gauged to the student’s needs. The final pump discussion relates to cryogenic-type pumps, with a brief review of cryosorption and cryocondensation pumps, and a much more detail detailed discussion of cryogenic pumps. The section on cryogenic pumps also includes detailed discussion of the development, operation, and typical maintenance issues related to cryogenic closed-cycle helium refrigeration systems.

Instructor: Timothy Gessert, Gessert Consulting, LLC


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-211 Vacuum Hardware and Vacuum Leak Detection

This one-day course is designed to overview materials and processes typically used in vacuum technology, including equipment and processes used for basic vacuum Leak Detection. Although the content of the course is most optimally presented if the course is preceded by appropriate content from other courses, such as Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology, Vacuum Gauges, and Vacuum Pumps, it can often be customized to provide necessary framework/background for the concepts and discussion presented. The course is typically divided into Vacuum Hardware in the morning, and Vacuum Leak Detection in the afternoon, separated by a time for lunch.

The course begins with a general discussion of the many types of material or process parameters that need to be considered with regard to the design of specific vacuum hardware. These parameters include not only well-established physical parameters, (e.g., structural, electrical, optical, thermal, vapor pressure) but also less-well-defined, yet very important practical parameters (e.g., machinability, formability, vapor pressure, absorption/outgassing rate, etc.). With these foundation in place, the course proceeds into three main areas of examples and discussions: (1) Materials used in vacuum systems and components - including detailed discussions of particular metals, elastomers, glasses, and ceramics; (2) Procedures used in joining and forming vacuum materials - including both non-demountable (e.g., welding) and demountable (e.g., flanges) designs and procedures; (3) Components used in vacuum systems - including various types of valves (e.g., butterfly, poppet, gate, throttle, etc.), gas-flow components, feedthroughs, viewports, and filtration equipment. In all cases, the influence that important operational concerns, such as desired vacuum pressure and operational temperature, will have on component selection are discussed.

Content on Vacuum Leak Detection includes: (1) A foundation of various types of products that require low or very-low leakage; (2) An explanation of various units of leak rate, and; (3) Discussion of situations that lead to real vs. perceived leaks. Different types of leak-detection options are presented including dye-penetrant, radioisotope exposure, and high- or low-pressure methods. The remainder of the course focuses on the most typical leak detection techniques in vacuum technology - “low-pressure methods.” This discussion begins with examples of why an understanding “standard system performance” is essential to effective leak detection procedures. While most discussion focuses on the theory and operation of the Helium Mass Spectrometer (HMSLD), other “low-pressure” techniques are also presented (e.g., methanol penetration). The discussion of the HMSLD begins with its historical development, maintenance issues, and typical methods of using any HMSLD (e.g., Bagging, Probing, Sniffing, and Bombing). With an understanding of HMSLD use established, guidance on various hook-up configurations are presented, followed by key mathematical parameters (i.e., Rate of Pressure Rise, Ultimate Pressure Increase, and Time Constant of the Response Time). The course concludes with guidance of various typical options available to fix a leak when one is found.

Instructor: Timothy Gessert, Gessert Consulting, LLC


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-212 Vacuum System Design

This one-day course is designed to expose the student to design procedures and tools needed for undertake effective planning for procurement of either standard or advanced vacuum systems. Although the content of the course is most optimally presented if the course is preceded by appropriate content from other courses, such as Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology, Vacuum Gauges, and Vacuum Pumps, it can often be customized to provide necessary framework/background for the concepts and discussion presented. The course is typically divided into discussion of Design Considerations and Ramifications in the morning, discussion related to Chamber Design and System Performance in the afternoon, separated by a time for lunch.

The course begins with a brief overview of the physical environment within a vacuum system, and the related mathematical formulations that need to be appreciated when designing a vacuum system for optimum performance. The course next introduces the concept of major design Considerations including: (A) the Purpose of the system, (B) the Work Size and/or Processing Time constraints, and (C) Ambient. The course then describes how these Considerations related to hardware Ramifications including: (A) Dimensions and Layout, (B) Chambers and Valves, and (C) Vacuum Pumps and Traps. In all cases, the influence that important operational concerns, such as desired vacuum pressure, gas mixtures, and operational temperature, will have on selection of components that comprise the system are discussed.

Once the basic operational criterial of the to-be designed system are established, the course progresses to discuss material and design criterial for vacuum chamber and overall layout considerations for locations within the chamber for specific vacuum processes and monitoring. The course proceeds with some simple calculations of pump-down time for various chamber/pump combinations, as well as how to appropriately size both low and high vacuum pumps, using both single and multiple chamber design assumptions. The course concludes with some comments on pre- and post-assembly cleaning of vacuum system components, and design considerations for reduction of particles during vacuum processing. Concluding comments also discuss important design considerations related to (higher) conductance of vacuum lines when these are at pressures consistent with viscous flow.

Instructor: Timothy Gessert, Gessert Consulting, LLC


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


VT-220 Practical Guide to Vacuum System Operation Using a Trainer System

This one-day tutorial course will provide students with an understanding of a vacuum system through hands-on activities and demonstrations on a High Vacuum Equipment Trainer (HVET). This tutorial is intended for operators, process engineers and technicians who work with vacuum equipment but wish to possess a deeper understanding of how a system is configured and operated. The course will address the structure of a typical high vacuum system, the role of the key system components and how the components work together to form a functional process system. We will also investigate how to establish the baseline performance of a high vacuum system and the techniques used to troubleshoot problems typically encountered.

Topical Outline:

  • Rough vs. high vacuum
  • High vacuum system structure and schematics
  • Manual operation of a high vacuum system
  • Vacuum pumps, gauges, valves and mass flow controllers
  • Baseline testing: pumpdown and rate of rise
  • Calculation of gas load, conductance, effective pumping speed and system base pressure
  • Conductance testing: mass flow controller

Instructor: Tom Johnson, Instructor, Normandale Community College - Bloomington, MN


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


VT-230 Design and Specification of Vacuum Deposition Systems

This short course intended as a guide for the researcher or production specialist that has a requirement for a vacuum/thin film deposition system. It will cover topics including: turning an idea for a system into a pertinent RFQ; major price points of a system; how to get more system for less; and how to get effective support and training. Upon completion of the course, participants should know how to specify a system to cover the intended purpose(s), understand common options in terms of process requirements, price control strategies, how to set acceptance criteria to cover the purpose and still stay within budget, and how to make sure the vendor stays interested in keeping the system healthy.

Topical Outline:

Design and Specification of Vacuum Deposition Systems

  • From concept to RFQ
  • Vendor interactions and final pricing
  • Getting facilities and labs in place
  • Installation, training, acceptance
  • Continued Support

Attendees in this tutorial receive course notes.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Rob Belan, Technical Director, Kurt J. Lesker Company - Pittsburgh, PA


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-102 Introduction to Ellipsometry

Ellipsometry is an important characterization technique for optical coatings. This tutorial will build an understanding of ellipsometry fundamentals. We start with basic theory behind optical measurements and discuss how ellipsometry extracts thin film properties such as single and multi-layer film thickness, complex refractive index, porosity, conductivity, and composition. A wide range of ellipsometry applications will be surveyed, with emphasis toward optical coatings.

The level of this tutorial is suitable for those new to the field of optical characterization but also contains worth-while information for current ellipsometry users. It will benefit anyone interested in exploring the potential of ellipsometry measurements.

Topical Outline:
  • Principles of ellipsometry
  • Optical constants and light-matter interaction
  • Using Ellipsometry to measure material properties
    • Film thickness, complex refractive index, …
  • Survey of applications:
    • What can Ellipsometry measure?
    • Ex-situ, in-situ, and in-line examples.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: James N. Hilfiker, J.A. Woollam Co. Inc.


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-110 Introduction to X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

This introductory course covers the fundamentals of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is the most widely used and important method for chemically analyzing surfaces. This class is intended for scientists, engineers, and technicians who would like both a basic, working knowledge of the technique and the ability to understand and interpret XPS data, including survey and narrow scans. XPS is an important tool for understanding surfaces in many areas of technology, including in semiconductor manufacturing, failure analysis, thin film deposition, tribology, wetting, biosensors, coatings, catalysis, and electrochemistry. After taking this course, the student should understand the basic physics of XPS and how an XPS instrument works, including how X-rays are generated, why XPS is surface sensitive, the fundamental equation of XPS, how spin-orbit splitting dictates the type of peaks that are present in a spectrum, and the nomenclature of XPS (and Auger) lines. The student should also be able to identify/calculate the elements that are present at a surface, their concentrations (with appropriate caveats), and be able to understand some basic peak fitting.

Topical Outline:

Course Outline/Topics Covered:

  • Why XPS?
  • Introduction to XPS
  • XPS Basics
    • Simple schematic of an XPS instrument
    • X-ray generation
    • XPS as a high vacuum technique
    • The fundamental equation of XPS
    • Why XPS is surface sensitive
    • Nomenclature of XPS and Auger Lines
    • Components of an XPS instrument (generating X-rays, Bremsstrahlung, X-ray monochromators, etc.)
    • Charge neutralization
  • XPS survey spectra
    • Photoelectron peaks
    • Auger signals
    • Baseline rises
    • Phonon loss signals
    • The valence band
  • Spectral interpretation
    • Peak shapes
    • Baselines
    • Chemical shifts
    • Shake-up peaks
    • Peak asymmetry
    • Baseline rises (buried layers)
    • C 1s peak fitting
    • Uniqueness plots
    • Bad examples of spectral interpretation
  • Quantitation
  • Reference signals (e.g., C 1s)
Instructor: Dr. Matthew Linford, Brigham Young University


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-120 Design of Experiments for R & D

This course emphasizes issues of practical importance to those who use Design of Experiment (DOE) methodologies in the R&D or production environment. It is intended for scientists, engineers, and technicians who would like an understanding of DOE concepts and the practical challenges that can arise when incorporating them into one’s experimental practices. The basic introduction to DOE and discussion of fundamental assumptions will be useful to those unfamiliar with DOE concepts. The discussion of complications and examples of how they can be addressed will be useful to those who are experienced with DOE and are interested in achieving better results from applying DOE principles. Managers of groups involved in R&D and production will find the material helpful in their efforts to support the work in their groups.

This Webinar will be equally useful for students, engineers and technicians who are working with any thin film deposition process or are planning to work in related areas.

Topical Outline:
  • Underlying assumptions of DOE
  • DOE designs for screening factors
  • DOE designs for modeling responses
  • Response surface forms - the twisted plane, saddles, and domes
  • Complications that arise - when is a factor not really a factor?
  • More complications - dealing with non-linear responses
  • Simulated experimental examples
    • screening factors
    • modeling responses
  • Plasma web treatment example
    • determining a suitable process factor space
    • redefining the factor space using plasma diagnostics
    • applying a physical model of the modification process
Instructor: Jeremy M. Grace, Senior Filter Design Engineer, Semrock, a unit of IDEX Corporation


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-201 Flexible Electronics

Revolutionary new capabilities for monitoring physical health of humans, machinery, and the processes governing the climate and condition of our entire planet are currently in development. Low cost flexible electronic devices play a critical role in these endeavors. This course will trace the evolution of reliable, large-area, flexible electronics and associated technologies, and will cover fabrication approaches such as chip attachment, thin-film devices, and nanoscale self-assembled and printed device based coatings. Additionally, fundamentals of state of the art fabrication techniques including vapor phase processing and direct fabrication approaches such as printing with aerosols and particle-based inks featuring advanced electronic materials to enable flexible electronic devices will be presented.

Topical Outline:
  • Flexible electronics overview
    • General concepts
    • Applications
  • Evolution of synthesis and fabrication materials optimized for flexible electronics
    • Silicon
    • Organic electronics
    • Ultra-thin, or 2D materials
  • Synthesis and processing methods for flexible electronics
    • Substrate considerations and preparation
    • Vapor phase processing
    • Printing
    • Photonic annealing
  • Mechanical and electronic properties of flexible electronic devices
    • Limitations on flex – performance vs. strain
    • Lifetime dependence on strain
  • Characterization and device integration
    • State of the art approaches for flex characterization
    • Challenges unique to flexible platforms
  • The future of flex
    • Performance potential
    • Market/application projections
Instructor: Christopher Muratore, Ohio Research Scholars Endowed Chair Professor in the Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Dayton - Dayton, OH


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-205 The Craftsmanship of Ophthalmic Coatings

Vision Monday Press Release

This tutorial covers the basic information needed to produce state-of-the-art ophthalmic coatings ranging from the coating characteristics to the production of coatings and process trouble shooting. The course is intended for technicians, floor shop managers and senior operators working in the ophthalmic industry dealing with the day to day traps of operating coating equipment, running processes, and the infrastructure that supports both.

The tutorial begins with the fundamentals of Ophthalmic coating and discusses the issues associated with selecting the best coating processes in terms of coating quality, process management and process performance on a day to day basis. An overview of the main processes for producing ophthalmic coatings is given, which includes hard coating by dip or spin methods, anti-reflective coatings by vacuum deposition processes, and ion assisted PVD. Test methods as leak rate determination are used to evaluate processing equipment and coatings are also overviewed, which covers tests for physical, chemical and mechanical properties for lifetime performance expectancy. Finally, functional coatings that have been developed and utilized for some specific applications will be discussed as well as troubleshooting for typical errors and how to recognize and prevent them.

Topical Outline:
  • Coatings on ophthalmic lenses – Why use them and what are the characteristics
  • Machines used in ophthalmic and the necessary infrastructure to operate them successfully
  • Coating processes used and their application
  • Benefits and risks of specific machine types and related processes
  • The sampling method as measured standard and its consequences for batch processes
  • The need for consistency, stable robust processes, high FPY and strict maintenance
  • Testing methods in-house; per batch, per machine
  • Testing methods at test facilities as COLTs for independent benchmarking of quality
  • The Do´s and Dont’s of day-to-day production – Why pessimists are the best coating practitioners
  • State-of-the-art coatings, properties, and applications
Instructor: Georg Mayer, Director, Head of International Rx Lab Support, Rodenstock GmbH - Munich, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-210 Introduction to Solid-State Thin Film Batteries

The half-day tutorial is designed to introduce the concept of solid-state thin film batteries to designers and component fabricators who are looking for a micro-sized energy storage device that can be permanently integrated into small electronic and energy harvesting systems. A review of the currently available deposition techniques will be presented as well as some of the benefits and limitations of this novel battery. Future directions to improve energy density through alternative materials combinations and 3-dimensional device designs will be discussed. Recommendations for deposition system design based on the issues associated with solid state thin film battery fabrication, including cross contamination and encapsulation, will also be presented.

Topical Outline:
  1. Resources for Physical Vapor Deposition
    1. Books on PVD
    2. Reference tables
    3. Formulas
  2. What is a solid-state thin film battery (SSTFB)
    1. How traditional batteries work
    2. How solid-state thin film batteries work
    3. Features, ionic motion, flexibility
    4. Discharge performance
  3. History of (Modern) SSTFBs
    1. Oak Ridge National Lab and the invention of LiPON
    2. Patent history since 1993
    3. Patents by geography and company
    4. Summary of the manufacturing process
  4. Applications of SSTFBs
    1. Sensors
    2. Mobile electronics
    3. Micro-energy harvesting systems
  5. Environmental conditions
    1. The atmosphere
    2. Molecular speeds
    3. Pollution
    4. Molecular density and pressure
    5. Mean free path
  6. PVD conditions
    1. Deposition system design
    2. Process parameters
    3. Fundamental parameters
    4. Substrate preparation
    5. Film microstructure and composition
    6. Film properties
  7. The Sputter Process
    1. Basic schematic
    2. Effect of electrical biasing
    3. Example of LiCoO2 cathode film
    4. Example of LiPON electrolyte film
    5. Sputter system designs: for research, for production
    6. Magnetron sputtering
    7. Sputtering yields
    8. Sputtering electrical insulators
  8. Thermal evaporation
    1. Lithium metal anode films
    2. Basic thermal evaporation system design
    3. Equilibrium vapor pressure
    4. Materials utilization
    5. Thickness uniformity
  9. Thin film growth models
    1. Structure zone models
      1. Impact of pressure
      2. Influence of substrate temperature
      3. Other factors effecting thin film morphology
    2. Thin film growth models
      1. Layered growth: Frank–Van de Merwe
      2. Island growth: Volmer-Weber
      3. Layered and island growth: Stranski–Krastanov
      4. Hybrid models – random growth models
  10. Impact of stoichiometry on device performance
    1. The problem with LiCO2 – impact of Li content on energy density and electrical conductivity
    2. Sputter yields – preferential sputtering
    3. Target geometry during sputtering – changing race track angles changes adatom flux directions
    4. Changing magnetron effects during sputtering
    5. Stress in thin films, effect of pressure, intrinsic stress, thermal stress
  11. The need for smooth, particulate free films
    1. Impacts on making pinhole free electrolyte layers
    2. How particulates are generated
    3. Generation of localized hot spots
  12. Post deposition processing
    1. Flexible substrates
    2. Rigid substrates
    3. Crystallization step to improve ionic conductivity
  13. The need for encapsulation and approaches to protect the battery from moisture
    1. Short term encapsulation
    2. Long term encapsulation
      1. Hermetically sealed chip packaging
      2. Multi-layered coatings
  14. Example deposition systems for SSTFBs
    1. Single chamber system
    2. Multi-chamber system with load lock
    3. Glove box integrated systems
  15. SSTBs in 2D – approaches to increase capacity in a small footprint
    1. Cathode/Electrolyte combinations for higher voltage
    2. Thin substrates, flexible, temperature limitations
    3. Hunt for new materials
  16. SSTBs in 3D – approaches to increase capacity in a 3D and small footprint
    1. 3D substrates,
      1. waves
      2. vias
      3. rods
      4. Gels or foams?
    2. Alternative deposition techniques (ALD, plasma assisted ALD (PEALD))
  17. Characterization of SSTFBs
    1. Impact of discharge rates on performance
    2. Charge discharge examples
    3. Target materials
    4. As-deposited films
    5. Post deposition processes
    6. Half cells
    7. Full cells
  18. Conclusions
Instructor: J. R. Gaines, Technical Director of Education, Kurt J. Lesker Company - Jefferson Hills, PA


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-220 Thin Film Superconductor Tapes

High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are beginning to impact a large potential market in diverse applications such as energy, health, military, telecommunication, transportation and research. The challenge has been in developing these brittle ceramic materials in lengths of over a kilometer on flexible substrates with properties similar to that of high quality epitaxial thin films. Novel materials processing has been developed to fabricate superconducting tapes with excellent critical current performance by manipulation of grain orientations and nanoscale defects. HTS tapes are now being manufactured in quantities of few hundred kilometers annually with current carrying capacity of about 400 times that of copper wire of the same cross section. This tutorial delves into the details of RE-Ba-Cu-O (REBCO, RE = rare earth) HTS materials, challenges faced in utilizing these materials, innovative solutions developed to overcome these challenges, thin film vacuum deposition technologies to fabricate REBCO tapes, industrial-scale manufacturing, ongoing R&D activities and applications. This course is intended for students, scientists and engineers who are interested in new opportunities in the rapidly-growing field of thin film superconductor manufacturing or in applying innovative materials, process and roll-to-roll manufacturing technologies developed for superconductors in their own fields.

Topical Outline:
  • Superconductors; Historical Overview:
    • Cryogenics
    • Discovery of superconductivity
    • Low temperature superconductors
  • High temperature superconductors (HTS):
    • HTS materials including RE-Ba-Cu-O (REBCO)
    • Structure and properties
    • HTS tape fabrication
  • Critical currents in HTS:
    • Challenges with anisotropy and grain boundaries
    • Solutions to address weak-link problems to increase critical current
    • Flux pinning
    • Nanoscale defects to improve flux pinning to increase critical current
  • Biaxially-textured thin film templates to fabricate high-current REBCO tapes:
    • Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD)
    • Rolling Assisted Biaxially-Textured Substrates (RABiTS)
    • Inclined Substrate Deposition (ISD)
  • REBCO thin film superconductor tapes using biaxially-textured templates:
    • Deposition methods – Pros and Cons
    • Engineering nanoscale defects in REBCO thin film tapes
    • Complete REBCO tape architecture
  • Current status of thin film superconductor tapes:
    • Industry-scale roll-to-roll manufacturing
    • Ongoing R&D
    • Applications of thin film superconductor tapes
Instructor: Dr. Venkat Selvamanickam, Director of the Advanced Manufacturing Institute, University of Houston - Houston, TX


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-103 An Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processes

This course is suitable for all seeking an introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes and includes detailed descriptions of the hardware, systems, theory, and experimental details related to evaporation, sputtering, arc deposition, laser ablation, etc. This course also includes an introduction to the vacuum technology as relevant to PVD. Thus, it includes an introduction to vacuum science, pumps, vacuum measurement and control instruments, plasma and plasma characterization, etc. This course does not have any pre-requisite but some previous experience with any deposition technology or equipment is helpful.


Physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes are atomistic deposition processes in which material vaporized from a source is transported in the form of a vapor through a vacuum or low-pressure gaseous environment to the substrate, where it condenses and film growth takes place. PVD processes can be used to deposit films of compound materials by the reaction of depositing material with the ambient gas environment or with a co-deposited material. This tutorial will discuss and compare the basic PVD techniques including vacuum evaporation, sputter deposition, arc vapor deposition, pulsed laser deposition, ion beam sputtering and ion plating. Vacuum evaporation uses thermal vaporization as a source of depositing atoms; sputter deposition uses physical sputtering as the vaporizing source; arc vapor deposition uses a high-current, low-voltage arc for vaporization; and ion plating uses concurrent or periodic energetic particle bombardment to modify the film growth. The parameters used for each technique will be discussed along with their advantages, disadvantages, and applications. This is an entry-level tutorial to acquaint the students with various PVD processes used for “surface engineering.”


The day-long tutorial will be conducted in two sessions with the first session primarily dedicated to vacuum technology and instrumentation and the second session focusing on individual PVD processes.

After the completion of this tutorial, the participant will have acquired:
a. Working knowledge of a vacuum system, as pertinent to PVD processes.
b. Understanding of the technology that creates and measures vacuum.
c. Understanding of the various processes that lead to the formation of vapors
d. Understanding of the growth of thin films
e. Understanding of the surfaces involved in thin film growth and how to prepare these surfaces for a successful deposition run.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction: deposition environments (vacuum and plasma), film formation, film structures, reactive deposition, factors affecting film properties
  • Vacuum evaporation and vaporization, evaporation and sublimation, deposition chambers, vaporization sources (resistive and e-beam), evaporation materials, fixture design, process parameters, monitoring and control, advantages and disadvantages, applications
  • Sputter deposition and physical sputtering, plasmas (dc, rf, magnetron, and pulsed dc), sputtering target configurations, reactive sputter deposition, sputtering materials, process parameters, monitoring and control, advantages and disadvantages, applications
  • Arc vapor deposition and vacuum and plasma arcs, properties of arcs, generation and “steering” of arcs, arc sources, reactive arc deposition, process parameters, monitoring and control, advantages and disadvantages, applications
  • Ion plating and bombardment effects, bombardment configurations, reactive ion plating, ion plating vaporization sources and evaporation, sputtering and arc process parameters, monitoring and control, advantages and disadvantages, applications
  • Ion beam sputtering – role of ions in the overall PVD processes, ion generation and use specifically in the ion beam systems, process geometries and systems.
  • Laser ablation – Advantages and disadvantages of using a laser system for ablation and subsequent deposition of materials, process variables, system geometry.
  • PVD deposition systems and configurations (batch, load-lock, and in-line), pumping options
     

The tutorial fee includes the text, Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing, 2nd edition, Donald M. Mattox (Elsevier Publishing, 2010).

 

Instructor: S. Ismat Shah, University of Delaware


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-203 Sputter Deposition (two – day course)

This tutorial covers fundamental mechanisms associated with generation of glow discharges, sputtering, and energetics of target and substrate processes. Operation and system design will be discussed for dc, rf, magnetron (both magnetically balanced and unbalanced), pulsed dc, and ion beam sputtering. The advantages and disadvantages of these different modes of operation will be examined from the point of view of controlling film properties. Emphasis is placed on developing a sufficient understanding of sputter deposition to provide direction in designing new processes. Present and future trends in sputter deposition also will be addressed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Processes controlling film growth and properties
  • The role of energetic particles in controllably modifying these processes
  • Target sputtering effects
  • Nature and energy of sputtered atoms
  • Diode, triode, magnetron, and ion beam systems
  • dc, HIPIMS, pulsed dc, mid-frequency ac, and rf power for targets and substrates
  • Reactive sputtering of conducting and dielectric layers
  • Alloy sputtering

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-204 Basics of Vacuum Web Coating

This tutorial is intended for roll coater machine operators, maintenance personnel, technicians, engineers, scientists, supervisors, and others who would benefit from an introduction to issues related to roll-to-roll vacuum coating onto polymer substrates. This tutorial will emphasize practical aspects of the topics, and the treatment will be descriptive with little mathematics used. The tutorial focuses strongly on coatings made by resistance evaporation but touches on e-beam and induction evaporation and sputter coating. If your primary interest is sputtering onto webs, please see our other offering, “Sputter Deposition onto Flexible Substrates” (C-211).

 

Topical Outline:
  • Markets for coated web products
  • Vacuum technology for web coating
  • Substrate characteristics
  • Web handling and web winding systems
  • Coating techniques and web cooling issues
  • Process and product monitoring methods
  • System maintenance issues
  • Sources of information about web coating

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Donald J. McClure, Acuity Consulting and Training


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-205 Introduction to Optical Coating Design

Optical interference coatings are essential and enabling components in sensors, display devices, biomedical instrumentation, aerospace systems, and numerous other applications. It is hard to think of an optical instrument or system that does not benefit from their use and many systems would simply not be possible without them. This one-day course provides an introduction to optical coatings and essential design methods.

The course begins with some relevant fundamentals of optics and important properties of optical materials. The basic principles of interference coatings are described and useful insight is gained through the use of simple formulas and diagrams. These tools are applied to understanding the most important and exemplary design types, such as antireflection coatings, edge filters, narrowband filters, and high reflecting coatings. The combination of simpler design types to create more complex functionalities and the use of computer-optimization to improve on the performance of simpler “starting designs” are considered.

The level of the course is geared towards engineers and scientists who are new to the field and need to understand optical coatings and design fundamentals. It is also a suitable course for technical managers, technicians, and experienced practitioners seeking a brush-up. An advanced background in mathematics or physics is not required.

Topical Outline:

• Introduction to light and optical materials
• Survey of optical coatings
• Optics of interfaces and interference fundamentals
• Graphical tools for understanding and designing coatings
• Antireflection coatings
• Quarterwave stacks and all-dielectric reflecting coatings
• Narrowband filters, wideband filters, and edge filters
• Coatings incorporating metal layers
• Coatings at oblique angles of incidence
• Design synthesis and optimization

Instructor: Robert Sargent, Viavi Solutions


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-207 Evaporation as a Deposition Process

Evaporation is a technology used widely to produce thin films in vacuum. The tutorial describes the basics of evaporation and its utilization in various technological processes. The tutorial provides the conceptional basis for a wide range of evaporation techniques. It is designed to meet the needs of both a newcomer to the field and the experienced professional. Experienced scientists and engineers will have an opportunity to broaden their view of this field and deepen their understanding of evaporation processes.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Thin film deposition in vacuum
  • Evaporation mechanism—Thermodynamic of evaporation, evaporation rate, vapor pressure of elements, evaporation of compounds, evaporation of alloys
  • Film thickness uniformity and purity—Deposition geometry, film thickness uniformity, conformal coverage, film purity, deposition rate monitoring and process control
  • Evaporation sources—General considerations, resistance heated sources, sublimation sources, induction heated sources, electron beam heated sources, arc evaporation, laser ablation
  • Reactive evaporation—Reactive and activated reactive evaporation
  • Ion-assisted evaporation—Ion plating, enhanced ion plating, plasma-assisted deposition, ion-beam-assisted deposition
  • Microstructure of evaporated thin films—Film growth mechanisms, structural zones, ion-assisted growth
  • Deposition systems for thin film deposition by evaporation—Major parts of the system, web coatings systems, vacuum batch systems
  • When should we use evaporation as a deposition process

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Abe Belkind, Abe Belkind and Associates


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-208 Sputter Deposition for Industrial Applications

This course covers topics of practical importance to those who presently use sputtering or who would benefit from an introduction to the technology. The emphasis is on developing an understanding of the underlying science and the factors that influence product throughput, coating quality and process robustness and reliability. Typical applications of various sputtering techniques are presented as well as the advantages and limitations of each. Relationships between the sputtering conditions and important film properties - such as microstructure, composition, stress, adhesion and the resulting mechanical, electrical, and optical characteristics - are discussed. The emphasis is on process and hardware considerations rather than the detailed material properties of the coatings. No prior background in sputtering is needed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • A Brief introduction to basic vacuum technology
  • Sputtering plasmas and the nature of the sputtering process
  • Estimating deposition rates and rate limiting factors
  • Cathode geometries and associated film thickness profiles
  • Film composition and compositional uniformity
  • Film nucleation and growth
  • Effects of substrate temperature and energetic particle bombardment
  • Biased sputtering and the use of unbalanced magnetrons
  • Sources of substrate heating
  • rf sputtering of dielectrics from insulating targets
  • The dc, pulsed dc, and ac reactive sputtering of dielectrics
  • Process control methods for reactive sputtering
  • Arcing, disappearing anodes, and other process stability issues
  • Ion beam sputtering
  • High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (HPPMS or HIPIMS)

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: David A. Glocker, Isoflux (retired)


This course is currently available via:
Webinar Tutorial
SVC TechCon Tutorial
On Location Education Program


C-210 Introduction to Plasma Processing Technology

The goal of the tutorial is to show the link and provide understanding of relations between coating application, coating (or modified surface) properties, selection criteria on process characteristics, selection criteria on plasma parameters, and method design. It is possible to predict how the process parameters will be reflected in the coating and in the opposite direction, requirements on the coating properties can imply how the process should be designed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Plasma-assisted technologies, general attributes
  • Useful criteria, basic relations and limits for plasma, classification of plasmas
  • Generation of gas discharge plasma, plasma diagnostics
  • Generation of vapor species, transport through medium, diffusion, condensation at the surface
  • Consequences of the deposition process on film properties
  • Fundamentals of radical and ion-assisted plasma chemistry
  • Homogeneous and heterogeneous plasma-assisted reaction in deposition of films
  • Examples of novel plasma processes
  • Limits and new trends
  • Hybrid plasma processes
Instructor: Hana Baránková, Professor, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University
Instructor: Ladislav Bárdos, Professor, Uppsala University - Sweden


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-211 Sputter Deposition onto Flexible Substrates

This tutorial is intended for engineers, scientists, and others who are interested in sputter deposition onto polymer substrates in a roll-to-roll format. This tutorial will emphasize practical aspects of the topics, and the treatment will be descriptive with little mathematics used. There will be time dedicated to problem solving; bring your questions and problems and leave with new solutions and/or new directions.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Markets for sputter-coated web products
  • Vacuum technology for sputter web coating
  • Substrate characteristics
  • Web handling, web winding, and web cooling issues
  • The sputter coating process
  • Process and product monitoring methods
  • Current topics in sputter web coating

Additionally, the notes provide extensive information and references to sputtering (written at several levels) and a comprehensive bibliography on sputter web coating.

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Donald J. McClure, Acuity Consulting and Training


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-212 Troubleshooting for Thin Film Deposition Processes

The tutorial is designed for process engineers and technicians, quality control personnel, thin film designers, and maintenance staff.

Vacuum deposited thin films are used for optical coatings, electrically-conductive coatings, semiconductor wafer fabrication, and a wide variety of other uses. They may be deposited on glass, plastic, semiconductors, and other materials. Usually, a vacuum deposition process produces durable, adherant films of good quality. But what do you do when things go wrong? Not all films can be deposited on all substrate materials. Sometimes films peel off or crack. Other times they are cloudy, absorbing, scattering, or have other unacceptable properties. 

This tutorial will teach you about techniques and tools that can be used to identify the source of the problems, correct the process, and get back into production. It will also help in learning how to develop new processes and products.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of thin films
  • Process parameters that affect film properties
  • Gauge and instrument calibration
  • Properties of substrate surfaces
  • Measurement of film stress
  • Detection of contamination
  • Introduction to surface analysis techniques (Auger, ESCA, SIMS, FTIR)
  • Substrate preparation and cleaning

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Dr. Mike Miller, Test and Process Engineering Manager, Angstrom Engineering - Kitchener, ON


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-216 Practical Design of Optical Thin Films

The course is intended to be valuable to new coating engineers, scientists, technicians, and technical managers as well as seasoned thin film scientists who are involved in design, development, and production of optical thin films. Basic principles are laid out from the beginning for those new to the field, but the evolution of the topics then moves into material and techniques useful to even the more experienced practitioners. No extensive background in mathematics or physics is required; extensive graphical illustrations are used. This course deals with optical thin film coating design. It is a companion to, but not a requirement for, the course on optical thin film coating production on the following day with another book by the author. Advanced optical thin films are being used increasingly in communications, optical systems, and light control and collection applications. The sophistication of the optical coating industry is advancing rapidly to meet ever increasing demands for performance and production capability. New viewpoints, equipment, and processes are available to support advanced capability and efficiency. Objectives of this course include: to provide increased knowledge and understanding of the many practical aspects of optical coating design, to discuss the techniques and principles discussed, and to elucidate techniques and processes that are commonly successful in meeting optical coating needs.

Topical Outline:

• Firmly grasp, visualize, and use optical thin film design principles.
• Use graphical methods in thin film design.
• Estimate what can be achieved before starting a design.
• Obtaining good indexes from processes before final designs by good measurement techniques and avoiding pitfalls.
• Understand Fourier thin film synthesis and compare rugate and discrete layer designs.
• Solve practical coating design problems.

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, Practical Design of Optical Thin Films, 4th edition, Ronald R. Willey (Willey Optical, Consultants, 2014) [printed by Lulu.com Press]

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Ronald R. Willey, Consultant, Willey Optical


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-217 Practical Production of Optical Thin Films

This course is intended to be valuable to coating engineers, scientists, technicians, and technical managers as well as seasoned thin film scientists who are involved in the development, and production of optical thin films. Basic principles are reviewed in the beginning to insure that all are using the same nomenclature, but the evolution of the topics then moves into material and techniques useful to even the more experienced practitioners. No extensive background in mathematics or physics is required; extensive graphical illustrations are used. This course deals with optical thin film coating production. It is a companion to, but not a requirement for, the course on optical thin film coating design with another book by the author. Advanced optical thin films are being used increasingly in communications, optical systems, and light control and collection applications. The sophistication of the optical coating industry is advancing rapidly to meet ever increasing demands for performance and production capability. New viewpoints, equipment, and processes are available to support advanced capability and efficiency. Objectives of this course include: to provide increased knowledge and understanding of the many practical aspects of optical coating production, to discuss the techniques and principles, and to elucidate techniques and processes that are commonly successful in meeting optical coating needs.

 

Topical Outline:

• Select appropriate optical coating equipment to support the needed processes.
• Be aware of the importance of pumping effects and measurement accuracy and how to avoid pitfalls.
• Be familiar with the properties and process know-how for common optical coating materials.
• Further understand the use of energetic processes such as sputtering, plasma, and ion assist.
• Understand various monitoring and control strategies and their advantages and limitations.

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, Practical Production of Optical Thin Films, 3rd edition, Ronald R. Willey (Willey Optical, Consultants, 2015) [printed by Lulu.com Press].
 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Ronald R. Willey, Consultant, Willey Optical


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-218 Advanced Design of Optical Thin Films

The course is intended to be valuable to coating engineers, scientists, technicians, and technical managers as well as seasoned thin film scientists who are involved in design, development, and production of optical thin films. Basic principles are reviewed in the beginning to insure that all are using the same nomenclature, but the evolution of the topics then moves into material and techniques useful to even the more experienced practitioners. No extensive background in mathematics or physics is required; extensive graphical illustrations are used. This course deals with optical thin film coating design. It is a companion to, but not a requirement for, the course on optical thin film coating production with another book by the author. Advanced optical thin films are being used increasingly in communications, optical systems, and light control and collection applications. The sophistication of the optical coating industry is advancing rapidly to meet ever increasing demands for performance and production capability. New viewpoints, equipment, and processes are available to support advanced capability and efficiency. Objectives of this course include: to provide increased knowledge and understanding of the many practical aspects of optical coating design, to discuss the techniques and principles discussed, and to elucidate techniques and processes that are commonly successful in meeting optical coating needs.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Review Fundamentals of Thin Film Optics.
  • Firmly grasp, visualize, and use optical thin film design principles.
  • Discuss a variety of Applications.
  • Designing with Absorbing Materials.
  • Advanced Design Concepts.
  • Estimate what can be achieved before starting a design.
  • Obtaining good indexes from processes before final designs by good measurement techniques.
  • Solving Practical Coating Design Problems.

Attendees in this tutorial receive the 400+ page text, Practical Design of Optical Thin Films, 5th edition, Ronald R. Willey (Willey Optical, Consultants, 2018) [printed by Lulu.com Press]

Instructor: Ronald R. Willey, Consultant, Willey Optical


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-220 Introduction to Two-Dimensional Materials

Two dimensional (2D) materials are an expanding family of atomically thin materials with unique and unexpected optical and electronic properties that we continue discover each day. These materials are of particular interest because they offer the ultimate in layer-by-layer tailorablity to achieve the desired properties of materials. Moreover, electronic and optical devices produced from 2D materials demonstrate extreme mechanical flexibility, giving rise to new possibilities for technological developments with broad and impactful applications. This class will describe in detail the fundamental properties of this unique class of materials, typical approaches to making and characterizing them, and their applications.

Topical Outline:
  • Properties
    • Fundamentals of physics associated with 2D materials resulting in unique combinations of electronic, optical, and mechanical properties.
    • Characteristics of two dimensional material families, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and group IV monochalcogenides.
  • Processing
    • Approaches for synthesis of 2D materials including mechanical and chemical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, additive manufacturing, as well as the associated challenges of processing low dimensional materials
    • Practical discussions on how to get started synthesizing new materials and fabricating 2D devices
  • Characterization
    • Common chemical and structural characterization approaches for two-dimensional materials including Raman, XPS, TEM
    • Novel, in situ characterization techniques
  • Applications
    • Transistors
    • Light sources
    • Photodetectors
    • Molecular sensors
Instructor: Christopher Muratore, Ohio Research Scholars Endowed Chair Professor in the Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Dayton - Dayton, OH


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-230 PVD Processing of Plastics for Better Protection, Reflection, and Decoration

Thousands of PVD coating systems are installed around the world applying reflective, decorative, electronic shielding and tribological coatings on 3-dimensional polymer substrates including: automotive lighting and trim, toys, white goods (kitchen and bath appliances), sanitary (plumbing components), and electrical enclosures. These films are predominantly created using PVD thermal evaporation, or sputtering, and PE/CVD technologies. The industry is always looking for innovative thin film solutions, whether it be a new material, color or physical property. Today’s technologists must be versed in the basic PVD technologies in order to prepare for these innovation challenges. This course will review the technologies of thermal evaporation and sputtering as it applies to the various applications, as well as the ongoing maintenance required to ensure coating quality and where to look when the process goes astray.

Individuals who will benefit from this course will include: a.) technicians and engineers responsible for the setup, operation and maintenance of the equipment, b.) technologists who are responsible to develop new application, c.) Purchasing managers/executives responsible for capital expenditures, d.) supervisors responsible for production, quality and throughput, and finally e.) companies that are investigating getting into PVD processing.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Gary Vergason, Vergason Technology, Inc.
Instructor: Josh Soper, VP of Operations, Vergason Technology - Van Etten, NY


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-240 Fundamentals of Ion Beam Sputtering

This is a one-day class on Ion Beam Sputtering, designed to be an in-depth introduction to the process of ion beam deposition. The information presented will be appropriate for both process and equipment engineers, line management, sales, supply chain management, and anyone else who is interested in the use of ion beam in thin film coatings.

Some of the most advanced low-loss optics in the world are coated using ion beam deposition. This class will cover in detail the equipment of ion beam technology, ion sources, fixturing, and monitoring, how ion beam deposition works, and how all these pieces fit together to produce the highest performance coatings in the world. We will end with a brief discussion of the wide variety of applications that utilize ion beam technology.

Topical Outline:
  1. Ion Source Theory: From Space to Factory
    1. A History of Ion Sources
    2. End-Hall (Gridless) Ion Sources
    3. Gridded Ion Sources
      1. Principles of Operation
      2. Generating a Plasma
      3. RF vs. DC
      4. Grids
      5. The Ion Beam
      6. Neutralizers and Neutralization
  2. Ion Beam Systems
    1. Geometry
    2. Design Considerations
    3. Gas and Pumping
    4. Contamination Sources
    5. Uniformity Optimization
  3. Sputtering
    1. Fundamentals of Sputtering
    2. Ion Energy and Incidence Angle
    3. Deposition Plume
    4. Sputtering vs. Assisting
  4. Applications
    1. Ion Beam vs. Evaporation and Magnetron
      1. Process Speed
      2. Film Structure
      3. Film Quality: Defects, Stress, and Contamination
    2. Process Control: Time/Power, QCM, and OMS
    3. Ion-Assisted Ion Beam Deposition (IBAD)
    4. When is Ion Beam a good choice?
Instructor: Brett Buchholtz, Cofounder and Owner, Plasma Process Group - Windsor, CO


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-250 Introduction to Pulsed Laser Deposition

Pulsed Laser Deposition was a little-known deposition process until 1987. The discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) in 1986 and the subsequent growth of HTS thin films by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) in 1987 sparked the growth of this unique physical vapor deposition process in materials research. PLD is now on the cusp to enter production in several MEMS and HTS Coated Conductor applications. This course will cover the basics of Pulsed Laser Deposition, variations of the process, and compare them to alternatives such as magnetron sputtering, MBE, and evaporation. No prior background in PLD is required.

Topical Outline:

Topical Outline

  • Brief history of PLD prior to and after 1987
  • The fundamental nature of the PLD process
  • Unique characteristics of the PLD plume and the process over that of alternative PVD techniques
  • Typical PLD equipment for R&D and large area applications
  • Film composition and compositional uniformity
  • Multi-layer film growth via PLD or a combination of PLD and sputtering
  • In-situ diagnostics for PLD
  • Combinatorial deposition via PLD
  • Variations of PLD such as Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation and Resonant IR Pulsed Laser Evaporation
  • Issues still facing the PLD process
  • Examples of large-area PLD for production applications
Instructor: Dr. James A. Greer, President, PVD Products


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-260 Organic Electronics - The Future is Bright

This course is intended to give a practical approach to the audience on the fabrication of organic electronic and optoelectronic devices and emphasize on key parameters to consider during the design and building steps. The invention of low voltage and efficient thin film light emitting diode three decades ago, opened the door to organic thin films as a foundation for new generation electronics and optoelectronics. Since then, a wide range of possibilities using small organic molecules and conjugated polymers have been explored in a wide range of applications. Not only organic electronics have been proven in research, they have for a while now found space in consumer market. Organic light emitting device, or OLED as we all know it, is the most successful example along with organic solar cells and organic thin film transistors. In addition to screen displays, solar panels and transistors, these materials have recently emerged in intelligent wearable textiles, biomedical and bio-implantable devices, laser applications and found broader applications as sensors for non-invasive diagnostics or treatments. Organic electronics have become ubiquitous in society and the future of this industry is looking very bright.

Understanding the principle of operation and knowing how to build systems for fabrication of organic thin films is only the beginning of the adventure; after taking this course the only remaining question will be "When will you take part in building the future of organic electronics?”

Topical Outline:
  1. Introduction to the organic electronics – brief history on discovery of electrical conductance through small molecules
  2. Importance and prevalence of organic electronics
  3. Progress in technology and future opportunities
  4. Overview of applications – OLEDs, OPVs, OTFTs, OFET, Organic Sensors, etc.
  5. Principle of operation of organic electronics
  6. Fabrication of organic electronic devices
  7. Thin film technology - Techniques and methodology
  8. Thin film characterization methods for organic device analysis
  9. Thin film properties in device layers – interfacial properties
  10. Electrical performance and environmental stability of organic electronics:
    1. Considerations for device efficiencies
    2. PVD system design considerations and specifications – what works for organics!
    3. Challenges and failure modes - methods to overcome them!
    4. Consideration and optimization of Important parameters and variables (tools to get devices with high efficiencies and long lifetimes)
Instructor: Akhil Vohra, Product Manager, Angstrom Engineering Inc - Kitchener, Ontario, Canada


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-270 Coatings, Thin Films and Surface Solutions for Biomedical Applications: An overview of market trends, synthesis and characterization

With recent technological advances, there has been an increased emphasis on implantable biomedical devices with increased useful lifetimes, patient compatibility and performance. The BRAIN Initiative, launched in 2013 as the result of many advances in the understanding of neurological systems, has continued to improve our understanding of the human brain. The knowledge gained now allows the restoration of some physical functions after catastrophic injury. Within this realm, there are many applications for vacuum deposited coatings on electrodes. In general, coatings at the interface between an implanted medical device and the hosting biological system can improve device biocompatibility, performance and longevity. Example applications include hard coatings for artificial joints, x-ray opaque coatings to assist in device positioning, bactericidal coatings, and coatings on diagnostic devices.

In this half-day course, a broad overview of biomedically relevant coatings will be introduced including the market outlook for general groups of coatings. Coatings for specific applications will be discussed emphasizing the property that is exploited and the deposition conditions that are known to be important for best performing materials. This course is designed to provide an overview of biomedical coatings for those new to this area of research while providing a background intended to stimulate new ideas for devices.

Topical Outline:
  • Description of Biomedical Applications
  • Market Needs/Growth
  • Hard Coatings (orthopedic/joint replacement)
  • Bactericidal/Drug Eluting Coatings(nanoparticle/contact/eluting)
  • Electrode Coatings
  • Other Coatings for Biomedical Applications
  • Deposition Techniques
  • Alloying
  • Combinatorial Approaches
  • Characterization Techniques
    • Electrochemical
    • Microstructural
    • Biocompatibility
    • Mechanical
  • Needed Coating Improvements
  • Translational Path for Coatings/New Devices

Instructor: Jeffrey D. Hettinger, Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University
Instructor: Shahram Amini,


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-280 Thermal Spray Technology

Thermal spray technology and coatings solve critical problems in demanding environments. They provide “solutions” to engineering needs involving wear, high temperature and aqueous corrosion, and thermal regulation and degradation. Thermal spray is being increasingly used to manufacture net shapes, advanced sensors, and materials for the biomedical and energy/environmental marketing sectors. These and a vast array of emerging applications take advantage of the rapid and cost-effective capabilities of thermal spray technology in the OEM and repair industries.

Thermal spray processes; including twin wire-arc, combustion, high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF), cold spray and plasma spray, as well as associated technologies, can deposit virtually any material as a surface coating onto a wide range of other materials. Coating reliability and effectiveness necessitates that these overlay coatings be selected, engineered and applied correctly.

Topical Outline:

The masterclass will provide the participants with a thorough and holistic review of the evolution of the thermal spray process. Participants will also gain insights on the fundamentals of the different thermal spray processes and in the process, enhance their ability to solve complex thermal spray issues in a systematic and practical manner. In addition, the course will also expose them to the emerging markets which the technology can be applied, thus challenging the participants to explore potential business opportunities in the various industries.

The masterclass is customized for professionals who are keen to enhance their knowledge and skills in the thermal spray industry. This course provides trainees with deep insights on the latest technologies and solutions. The masterclass focuses on:

  • a thorough understanding of the thermal spray processes,
  • depiction of the quite complex scientific concepts in terms of simple physical models, and
  • integration of this knowledge to practical engineering applications and commonly accepted thermal spray practices.
Instructor: Dr. Christopher Berndt, Professor, Swinburne University of Technology - Melbourne, Australia


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-304 ITO and Other Transparent Conductive Coatings: Fundamentals, Deposition, Properties, and Applications

This tutorial is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians, and others, interested in understanding the deposition and properties of transparent conductive coatings (TCCs). The major topic of the tutorial is indium tin oxide, ITO. Deposition by dc magnetron sputtering is emphasized although all common deposition processes are described. Specific examples of the ITO properties achieved with evaporation, reactive and ceramic target sputtering deposition processes are shown. Post-deposition processing also is discussed. A methodology is described for developing an ITO (or any TCC) deposition process in your own equipment. Typical ITO properties are compared with those achieved by optically enhanced metals TCC (alternative TCO to ITO are mentioned but not discussed in detail – see C-321). The selection and design of a TCC to meet the requirements of a particular application are presented. Some knowledge of basic thin film coatings and interference optics is assumed, although key basics will be reviewed. The tutorial will briefly cover the basic physics and fundamentals of conductivity. A prior introductory solid state physics tutorial would be helpful but is not required. Time will be available for questions concerning your process problems.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Basic physics of transparent conductive coatings (TCCs)
  • Major deposition methods for TCCs
  • Control of TCC Film Properties
  • Selection of deposition method and process conditions
  • TCC performance in applications
  • Manufacturing issues
  • Optional topics

     

    — Thin film optics

    — Metal Nitride TCC

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Clark Bright, Bright Thin Film Solutions, LLC (retired 3M)


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-306 Non-Conventional Plasma Sources and Methods in Processing Technology

This tutorial is a new edition of a well-established annual tutorial started in 1997. It is intended for anyone using or planning to use plasma processing technology, including cold atmospheric plasma sources and applications. Extensive applications of plasma processing are accompanied by an intense development of different new plasma sources and methods (e.g., afterglow and downstream plasmas, pulsed plasmas, inductively coupled plasmas and helicons, dc and rf hollow cathode plasmas, atmospheric plasmas, etc.). The tutorial covers both the explanation of basic physical and technical principles of conventional and non-conventional systems and typical examples of their applications. This is very important not only for adopting new plasma technologies and easier orientation in a new market, but also for better understanding of conventional commercialized systems.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Gas discharge plasma - definition, characterization and generation principles.
  • Fundamentals of plasma processing, conventional plasma sources and systems.
  • Decaying plasmas and afterglows, time and space resolved afterglows, pulsed plasmas, hybrid plasma systems and processing.
  • Microwave plasmas, ECR plasma, surfatron and surfaguide afterglows for PCVD of films.
  • Novel radio frequency (rf) plasma systems, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicons.
  • Hollow cathode plasma sources (principles and basic applications), dc- and rf-generated hollow cathodes, linear hollow cathodes for large area processing.
  • Classification of arcs, arc evaporation of films from rf hollow cathodes, vacuum arcs, metastable-assisted regimes in hollow cathodes.
  • High density plasma sputtering.
  • Magnets-in-motion concept in plasma sources, linear magnetized hollow cathodes.
  • Cold atmospheric and subatmospheric plasma sources, corona and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), microwave atmospheric plasma, fused hollow cathode discharge.
  • Advantages and limits of the atmospheric plasma sources and applications.
Instructor: Hana Baránková, Professor, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University
Instructor: Ladislav Bárdos, Professor, Uppsala University - Sweden


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-308 Tribological Coatings

This tutorial is intended for design engineers, materials scientists, and coatings developers who have a need to specify and develop coatings for tribological applications (i.e., those in which wear must be reduced or prevented and/or friction minimized). The coatings also may need to have corrosion-resistant properties to operate in arduous conditions. The tutorial begins with a description of the mechanics of wear and discusses the problems of selecting coatings for optimal tribological performance. An overview of the main processes for producing tribological coatings is given, emphasizing vacuum deposition methods. Tribological test methods also are over-viewed, including tests for adhesion and mechanical properties. Coatings developed for enhanced tribological properties are described, and information is provided on some applications for these coatings.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Wear mechanisms and theories (adhesion, abrasion, erosion, fatigue, corrosion, etc.)
  • Tribological and mechanical test methods (e.g., pin on disc, abrasive wheel, scratch adhesion, microhardness, etc.)
  • Coating processes and selection
  • Benefits of ceramic coatings by PVD methods
  • Information on tribological coatings (e.g., metal nitrides, carbides, oxides, superlattices, multilayers, nanocomposites, DLC, etc., plus hybrid and duplex processes)
  • Applications information (e.g., metal cutting and forming, molding, bearings, pumps, auto parts, etc.)

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Dr. Allan Matthews, Professor of Surface Engineering and Tribology, The University of Manchester - United Kingdom


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-309 Cathodic Arc Deposition (half day)

Cathodic arc deposition is a high rate deposition process well established for some applications such as hard, protective, and decorative coatings. The rather unusual properties of cathodic arc plasmas are discussed, including their consequences for film properties such as high film density and stress. Cathodic arc deposition is put in context of other PVD coating techniques such as sputter and evaporation. Of special concern is the infamous macroparticle problem, which can be addressed with filters other strategies. This course is intended for engineers, technicians, and students interested in understanding the underlying physics of cathodic arc plasmas and energetic film growth processes, and practical aspects of deposition from the vapor/plasma phase.

Topical Outline:

• Motivation: Why would one use cathodic arcs for coatings?
• Some plasma basics: plasma versus sheath
• The physics of cathodic arc discharge
   - Explosive electron emission and fractal nature of cathode spot
   - spot types
   - plasma properties
   - macroparticle generation
• Plasma Guiding and Filtered Arcs
• Deposition of films
  - Film growth mechanisms
  - Energetic condensation / biasing
  -Nitrides, Oxides incl. TCOs, ta-C (DLC)
• Deposition equipment
   -DC versus pulsed
   -arc triggering
   -anodes
   -power supplies
   -filter integration
   -system integration

Instructor: ,


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-310 Sputtering

This course addresses scientists, engineers, technicians, and students that are interested in sputtering. This course will start with fundamentals on plasma discharges. General aspects of process parameters and resulting film properties will be addressed. Different sputtering configurations will be addressed from diode, hollow cathode to magnetrons. Course will cover both, non-reactive and reactive sputtering. It will address DC, pulse-DC, RF magnetron sputtering as well as high power impulse magnetron sputtering HIPIMS. Non-reactive and reactive sputtering will be discussed.

Topical Outline:
  • Plasma
  • Interactions of process parameters and coating properties
    • Structure zone models
    • Energetic particles
    • Thermalization
    • Stress
  • Fundamentals of sputtering
  • Hollow cathode sputtering
  • Magnetron sputtering
    • Sputtering cathodes
    • DC-, pulse-DC-, RF-excitation
    • Reactive Sputtering
  • High power impulse sputtering HIPIMS
    • Fundamental aspects
    • Self sputtering runaway
    • Generalized Recycling Model
    • Reactive sputtering
    • Examples

Instructor: Ralf Bandorf, Fraunhofer IST - Braunschweig, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-311 Thin Film Nucleation, Growth, and Microstructure Evolution

This tutorial is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians, and others involved with the vapor deposition of thin films by sputtering, evaporation, MBE, CVD, etc., and who need to obtain a better understanding of the effects of operating parameters on the properties of metal, semiconductor, and dielectric films and alloys. The tutorial is concentrated on the development of a detailed atomic-scale understanding of the primary experimental variables and surface reaction paths controlling nucleation/growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during vapor-phase deposition of thin films. The goal is to develop an appreciation of the advantages and disadvantages of competing growth techniques and to learn how to design better and more efficient film growth processes to achieve required properties. Thin films are pervasive in many advanced fields of modern technology including microelectronics, optics, magnetics, hard and corrosion-resistant coatings, micromechanics, etc. Progress in each of these areas depends upon the ability to selectively and controllably deposit films (thicknesses ranging from tens of Ångstroms to many micrometers) with specified physical properties. This, in turn, requires control—often at the atomic level—of film microstructure and microchemistry.

Topical Outline:
  • The role of the substrate in mediating growth kinetics
  • The nucleation process
  • Film growth modes
  • Epitaxy
  • The development and control of film stress (strain engineering)
  • Nucleation and growth of strain-mediated self-organized structures
  • Polycrystalline film growth, texture, and microstructure evolution
  • Structure-zone models of film microstructure
  • The role of low-energy ion/surface interactions during film growth
  • The relationship between film growth parameters and film properties

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-314 Plasma Modification of Polymer Materials and Plasma Web Treatment

Plasma treatments are used in the web coating and roll conversion industries to tailor polymer surfaces while preserving their bulk properties. This tutorial is intended for engineers, scientists, and technicians who would like to gain a better understanding of the influence of plasma process factors on treatment performance, as well as the practical issues related to process robustness, process speed, and ease of scale-up. While much of the tutorial deals with treatment of polymer webs, the key concepts presented are applicable to polymer surfaces in general and plasma treatment of materials in general.

 

Topical Outline:
  • A basic introduction to plasmas including discussion of species distributions, the structure of glow-discharge plasmas, electrical breakdown of gases, and mechanisms of sustaining a plasma.
  • Discussion of industrial applications of plasmas for polymer surface modification including wettability control & printing, bonding & adhesion, nucleation of films, control of biointeraction with surfaces, and control of gas-film interactions.
  • Description of a variety of plasma treatment technologies and the importance of controlling the industrial treatment environment.
  • The interaction of plasmas with polymer surfaces.
  • The basics of polymer surface analysis along with examples of surface analytical techniques applied to plasma treated polymers including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Also included is discussion of adhesion, wetability, etc.
  • Practical aspects of plasma web treatment including treatment dose, process factors and their roles, practical treatment efficiency, process verification, and process stability issues.
  • Mechanisms of surface modification in the context of a site balance model.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Jeremy M. Grace, Senior Filter Design Engineer, Semrock, a unit of IDEX Corporation


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-315 Reactive Sputter Deposition

This tutorial covers the fundamental mechanisms and technology of high rate reactive sputter deposition of conducting and insulating thin films. Following a brief introduction to reactive sputtering, including discussion of basic issues, target choices, and system configurations, we examine the effects of reactive gas addition on target surface and glow discharge processes which control film growth rates. Deposition approaches used in reactive sputtering – dc, rf, magnetron, pulsed dc, and ion beam – are discussed and compared. Process control strategies (e.g.: flow, partial pressure, and target voltage, and multi-loop control) and their implementation are described in detail using numerous examples. The advantages and disadvantages of these different modes of operation are examined from the point of view of controlling film properties. Emphasis is placed on developing a sufficient understanding of reactive sputter deposition to provide direction in designing new processes. The effects of energetic particle irradiation (positive and negative ions and fast neutrals) on film properties are also discussed. Present and future trends in reactive sputter deposition are addressed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction to reactive sputter deposition of conducting and insulating thin films
  • Target processes during reactive sputtering
  • Glow discharge volume processes during reactive sputtering
  • Deposition technologies used in reactive sputtering (dc, rf, magnetron, pulsed dc, ion beam)
  • Process control strategies
  • Particle irradiation effects during film growth
  • Film properties
  • Computer-based modeling

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-317 Reactive Sputter Deposition

This tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians, materials scientists, and coating developers, who have a desire and need to understand how the reactive sputter deposition process really works. The goal of the tutorial is to give the student a thorough understanding of all of the factors that affect the reactive sputtering process in order that the student can apply this knowledge to improve their reactive deposition process and achieve both high deposition rates and excellent film properties.

 

This tutorial covers the basics of reactive sputtering followed by a comparison of the use of flow control versus partial pressure control of the reactive gas. The latter allows operation in the transition region between the metallic and poisoned states of the target, and films can be deposited at much higher rates with excellent properties using partial pressure control compared to flow control of the reactive gas. Along with using partial pressure control, it is important to use the right type of power to assure that there is no arcing during the deposition. Which type of power to use and along with which partial pressure sensor are reviewed. Large area coating presents special challenges for the control of the reactive gas, and the need for multiple gas inlets along the length of a long cathode and sensing in each gas inlet zone are discussed. The requirements for a partial pressure control system along with commercially available controllers are presented. Multiple gas reactive sputtering and reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) are emerging areas that are advancing the state of the art for reactive sputtering. How they work and what factors are important for controlling these two processes are discussed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Basics of reactive sputtering
  • Flow control versus partial pressure control of the reactive gas
  • Power supplies for reactive sputtering
  • Reactive gas sensors
  • Large area reactive sputtering
  • Control systems for reactive sputtering
  • Multiple gas reactive sputtering
  • Reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-318 Nanostructures: Strategies for Self-Organized Growth (half-day)

 (The Materials Science of Small Things)

  • Learn about the primary classical and quantum effects which controllably alter the properties of increasingly small nanostructures.
  • Understand the mechanisms controlling self-assembly and self-organization during nanostructure growth.
  • Learn how to better design nanostructure growth processes.

The study of nanotechnology is pervasive across widespread areas including microelectronics, optics, magnetics, hard and corrosion resistant coatings, mechanics, etc. Progress in each of these fields depends upon the ability to selectively and controllably deposit nanoscale structures with specified physical properties. This, in turn, requires control -- often at the atomic level -- of nanostructure, nanochemistry, and cluster nano-organization.


Deceasing size scales of solid clusters can result in dramatic property changes due to both "classical" effects associated with changes in average bond coordination and, as cluster sizes become of the order of the spatial extent of electron wavefunctions, quantum mechanical effects. The course will start with examples including reduced melting points, higher vapor pressures, increased optical bandgaps, decreased magnetic hysteresis, and enhanced mechanical hardness. Essential fundamental aspects, as well as the technology, of nanostructure formation and growth from the vapor phase will be discussed and highlighted with "real" examples using insights obtained from both in-situ and post-deposition analyses.


Nanostructure case studies include:

  • examples of template, size, and coarsening effects: self-assembled Si/Si(001), Cu/Cu(001),TiN/TiN(001), TiN/TiN(111) nano-clusters,
  • examples of controlled template plus strain effects: self-organized Ge wires on Si(111), Ge wires on Si(187 72 81), Au chains on Si(553), InAs metal wires on GaAs(001), insulated metal wires on Si(111),
  • quantum dot engineering: formation, shape transformations, and ordering in self-organized SiGe/Si(001); InAs/GaAs(001), CdSe/ZnSe(001), PbSe/PbEuSe(111), Ag/Pt(111), and MnN/Cu(001) quantum dots,
  • examples of 3D nanostructures:(Ti,Ce)N/SiO2, TiBx/SiO2, and d-TaN/g-Ta2N/SiO2.

 

Topical Outline:

The course provides an understanding of:

  • the classical and quantum effects controlling the dramatic property changes observed in nanostructures as a function of cluster size and dimension (3D 2D 1D)
  • self-assembly and self-organization during film growth
  • the role of the substrate template and defect structures in mediating growth kinetics
  • the use of film stress to controllably manipulate nanostructure
  • other mechanisms (including surface segregation, surfactant effects, low-energy ion bombardment, cluster coarsening, etc) for controlling nanostructures
  • the design of nanostructures with specified properties.
 
Who Should Attend?

Scientists and engineers involved in deposition, characterization, or manufacturing/marketing of nanostructures and nanostructure deposition equipment.

 

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program
Contact SVC for Information


C-322 Characterization of Thick Films, Thin Films, and Surfaces

This course is intended for people with a basic background in thin films who need to understand the broad range of techniques available to characterize films. The course is appropriate for technicians, engineers, and managers who perform or specify characterization work as well as students seeking a broad understanding of the field.

This tutorial examines the broad range of techniques available to characterize thin film materials. We examine the range of properties of interest and how thin film properties may differ from bulk properties. Generic differences between counting and spectroscopic techniques are presented. Available “probes” are identified.

The main emphasis of the tutorial is an overview of a wide range of characterization techniques. We examine imaging techniques such as Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Scanning probe microscopies (STM, AFM …). We also explore techniques, which provide information about structural properties including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Stylus profilometry, Quartz crystal monitors (QCM) and density measurements.

The tutorial examines techniques, which explore chemical properties such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, ESCA), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). AES is used as a prototype to examine quantitative analysis of spectroscopic data. Characterization techniques for optical properties such as ellipsometry and optical scattering are also considered. Many of these chemical and optical techniques can also provide information about structural properties.

 

Techniques for determining electrical and magnetic properties are also discussed. These include resistance / four point probe, Hall effect, magneto-optical Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance. The emphasis here is on materials characterization as opposed to device characterization.

The tutorial concludes with an examination of techniques used to explore mechanical properties such as stress-curvature measurements, friction testing, micro/nano indentation and adhesion tests.

 

Topical Outline:

Overview of wide range of characterization techniques for thin films including:

  • Mechanical properties (stress, friction, micro/nano indentation, adhesion…)
  • Imaging (microscopies: optical, SEM, TEM, AFM …)
  • Structural properties (XRD, profilometry, QCM …)
  • Chemical properties (AES, EDAX, XPS, SIMS, …)
  • Electrical/magnetic properties (resistance, Hall effect, Kerr effect …)

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Tom Christensen, Provost/Professor of Physics, University of Colorado - Colorado Springs


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-323 Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS)

This course is intended for people with a basic background in materials science who need to understand the broad range of techniques available to characterize thick films, thin films, and surfaces. The course is appropriate for technicians, engineers, and managers who perform or specify characterization work as well as students seeking a broad understanding of the field. The tutorial examines a broad range of important properties of discusses how film thickness may cause measured values/performance to differ from bulk properties. Generic differences between counting and spectroscopic techniques are presented and available “probes” are identified.

 

Topical Outline:
  • HIPIMS - An Introduction
  • Stationary plasmas, sheaths, discharge
  • DC magnetron, and comparison to DC arc
  • Ion surface modification: etching and film growth, energetic condensation
  • Pulsed plasmas and sheaths
  • High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: the discharge
  • Plasma characterization and plasma diagnostics
  • Substrate biasing: etching / growth assist
  • Interface engineering by using HIPIMS plasmas
  • Deposition and coatings by HIPIMS
  • Microstructure and Texture tailoring by HIPIMS
  • Deposition rates
  • Hardware
  • Applications

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Arutiun P. Ehiasarian, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-324 Atmospheric Plasma Technologies (half day)

Atmospheric plasma technologies is a rapidly growing area in plasma-assisted technologies. However, the atmospheric plasma requires a special design of plasma sources to ensure non-equilibrium, i.e. non-thermal plasma in a number of applications in coating and surface treatment. Technologies using the atmospheric pressure plasma sources bring about fast processes, but it is important to be aware of limits given by atmospheric plasma properties and plasma chemical reactions. This introduction tutorial course addresses the most important principles and applications of non-thermal atmospheric plasma.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Cold atmospheric plasma sources - principles, problems to solve
  • Corona and Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD)
  • Atmospheric pressure plasma jets
  • Fused Hollow cathodes
  • Microwave atmospheric plasmas
  • Atmospheric plasma with/in liquids
  • Applications of the atmospheric plasma
  • Advantages and limits of the atmospheric plasma sources
Instructor: Hana Baránková, Professor, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University
Instructor: Ladislav Bárdos, Professor, Uppsala University - Sweden


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-326 Manufacture of Precision Evaporated Coatings

This tutorial provides detailed information on how to establish and improve evaporated coating processes for precision optical coatings. Design considerations for coating chambers, such as source placement, substrate fixturing, control of film thickness uniformity, and thickness monitors will be discussed. Trade-offs in the selection of source materials, means of controlling film structure, and the influence on the performance of the coated component will be considered. Process details will be approached with a focus on practicality; film properties must be measurable and system designs must be practical and cost-effective. Measurement techniques will be discussed to identify the influence of the coating process, understanding film performance as well as characterizing shortcomings of process methods. These process concepts are readily implemented in standard evaporation systems, providing significant improvements in existing coating facilities.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Jim Oliver, Vacuum Innovations, LLC and Univ. of Rochester LLE


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-329 Properties and Applications of Tribological and Decorative Coatings

Understanding the factors that control friction and wear are of vital industrial and economic importance. The function, reliability, and lifetime of many mechanical, electromechanical and even biological systems are impacted by the complex relationships between materials, surfaces, design, and the environments that they are exposed to. Increasing complexity and performance requirements that are driven by economics, and a heightened awareness of health and safety issues with traditional chemical plating processes offers new opportunities and challenges for novel coatings and advanced surface engineering techniques. This tutorial is intended for engineers, designers, managers and purchasing professionals who have a need to specify, develop and procure coatings for tribological applications (i.e., those applications in which wear must be reduced or prevented and/or friction minimized). These coatings will likely require corrosion-resistant properties to operate in arduous conditions and must also exhibit functional characteristics (color, adhesion scratch resistance, etc.) that span the complete range from industrial to consumer products. The tutorial begins with a description of the mechanics of wear and discusses the criteria for selecting coatings for optimal tribological performance. An overview of the main processes for producing tribological coatings is provided with emphasis on vacuum deposition methods. Tribological test methods also are reviewed, including tests for adhesion and mechanical properties. Finally, coatings developed for enhanced tribological and decorative properties are described and examples of applications are presented.

Topical Outline:

  • Wear mechanisms and theories (adhesion, abrasion, erosion, fatigue, corrosion, etc.)
  • Tribological and mechanical test methods (e.g., pin on disc, abrasive wheel, scratch adhesion, microhardness, etc.)
  • Coating processes and selection
  • Benefits of ceramic coatings by PVD methods
  • Information on tribological coatings (e.g., metal nitrides, carbides, oxides, superlattices, multilayers, nanocomposites, DLC, etc., plus hybrid and duplex processes)
  • Applications information (e.g., metal cutting and forming, molding, bearings, pumps, auto parts, etc.)

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Dr. Allan Matthews, Professor of Surface Engineering and Tribology, The University of Manchester - United Kingdom
Instructor: Dr. Gary Doll, Timken Professor of Surface Engineering, University of Akron - Akron, OH


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-330 Introduction to Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies (half day)

This course focuses on PV thin film technologies like Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe an the amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells which are nowadays mainly introduced. Starting point is a market overview followed by the basic designs of these solar cell types and their efficiency potentials. Especially the different manufacturing technologies are introduced focusing the different production and process steps of each solar cell type.

Topical Outline:

  • Market situation
  • Cell design of thin film solar cells
  • Research activities
  • Production and process technologies for thin film solar cells

 

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Volker Sittinger, Senior Scientist, Fraunhofer Institute – Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-332 Zinc Oxide-Based and Other TCO Alternatives to ITO: Materials, Deposition, Properties and Applications

Indium tin oxide, ITO, is the most common of Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO). However, there are concerns about ITO cost, availability and in some cases, performance. This tutorial covers zinc oxide-based alternatives with various dopants including, aluminum (AZO) and gallium (GZO), as well as other TCO alternatives to ITO. The tutorial is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians and others, interested in understanding the materials, deposition, properties and applications of TCO. The effects of dopant material choice and concentration on TCO properties are explored. TCO deposition by common methods, e.g., evaporation and CVD/pyrolysis, are described, although magnetron sputter deposition is emphasized. The influence of the deposition method on the TCO properties is shown including reported performance with Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). Engineering of TCO film properties by controlling deposition process parameters is explained. TCO properties with high temperature processes, e.g., on glass substrates, and low temperature processes, e.g., on plastic substrates, are compared. The instability of ZnO-based and other TCO in high temperature and high humidity environments is discussed, progress reported and future directions suggested. Designing and engineering TCO properties for specific applications is explained and examples presented. (This full-day tutorial is much more in-depth than the previously offered one-half day course (C-321) which surveyed alternative TCO types and achieved performance).

Topical Outline:

• Conductivity in transparent metal oxides
• Performance expectations; Theory and ITO baseline
• ZnO-based materials and dopants
• Performance of TCO grown by major deposition methods
• Control of TCO film properties
• Other TCO hosts and dopants
• Advanced doping techniques
• Environmental performance of ZnO-based and other TCO
• Designing and engineering TCO properties for applications
• Applications examples of TCO

Instructor: Clark Bright, Bright Thin Film Solutions, LLC (retired 3M)


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-333 Practice and Applications of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

This half day tutorial is intended for decision makers, engineers, technician and students interested in equipment availability, applications and process requirements of HIPIMS. Basic understanding or experience with plasma and materials is desirable but not required.

HIPIMS is a highly ionized pulsed sputtering process that produces significant ionization of the sputtered materials that, in turn, enables effective surface modification by ion etching and energetic deposition. Energetic deposition allows the formation of coatings with unique or superior properties compared to other deposition processes. Presently HIPIMS is undergoing the transition from academic research to being a major industrial process. 

The tutorial starts with a short introduction in the basics of HIPIMS technology. An extended treatment of HIPIMS is provided by the tutorial C-323 “High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering. The main focus of this tutorial is on commercially available equipment and its specifications as well as the general processing principles. Finally industrial (or close to industrial) applications will be presented.

Topical Outline:

1. Introduction to HIPIMS Technology

2. Industrial Equipment
   a. HIPIMS pulse generation
   b. Process control (reactive HIPIMS)
   c. HIPIMS diagnostics
   d. HIPIMS Coating systems

3. HIPIMS Applications
   a. HIPIMS etching
   b. Trench filling, Through via connection
   c. TCOs
   d. Hard coatings
     - nitrides
     - carbides
e. Optical coatings
 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Ralf Bandorf, Fraunhofer IST - Braunschweig, Germany
Instructor: Arutiun P. Ehiasarian, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-336 Transparent Gas Permeation Barriers on Flexible Substrates

This tutorial course will be of special value and interest to scientists, engineers, senior technical staff, and graduate students and anyone who want to learn the latest advances and applications in the specific field.

Thin transparent layers on polymer films are being used to drastically enhance the permeation barrier properties of polymer films while at the same time maintaining the flexibility and optical transparency of the polymer film. Applications range from food packaging films to encapsulation films for solar cells or flexible electronics.

This tutorial gives a comprehensive overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of transparent thin film permeation barriers. It covers a short overview about the scientific and technological fundamentals and their consequences for applications. Different permeation measurement principles and methods will be compared briefly. Single and multi-layer materials and technologies for the fabrication of thin film permeation barriers will be reviewed and evaluated regarding their suitability for different applications. Not only gas permeability but also optical properties, mechanical robustness and processing aspects will be discussed. Products and application examples will be discussed and an outlook about the current hot-topics in the field will be given.

Topical Outline:

• The need for barriers – products and requirements
• How to apply a barrier to your product - types of encapsulation
• Thin-film permeation physics and consequences for application
   - Permeation in polymers and solids
   - Models and mechanisms for permeation in thin films – the role of layer defects
   - Influence of measurement conditions (temperature, gas concentration, time)
   - Permeation in multi-layer stacks
• Overview about measurement-methods for barrier properties
   - Measurement concepts and methods
   - Typical measurement conditions
• Materials and Technologies for thin film barriers
   - Single and graded layer technologies
• Evaporation techniques
• Sputtering
• Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
• Atomic layer deposition (ALD)
• Short note on other methods
   - Influence of substrate quality and processing on barrier performance
   - Multilayer technologies
   - Techniques for interlayer deposition
• Properties of multi-layer stacks compared to single layers
• Application examples and outlook
   - Devices and their performance
   - Functional films and substrates for flexible electronics
   - Direct encapsulation versus barrier film lamination
   - Economic aspects
 

This course was developed by John Fahlteich, Steffen Günther, Nicolas Schiller, and Matthias Fahland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, Dresden, Germany

Instructor: John Fahlteich, Fraunhofer FEP - Dresden, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-337A ITO and Alternative TCO: From Fundamentals to Controlling Properties

This tutorial course is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians, and others, interested in understanding the fundamentals, materials, deposition, manufacturing, properties and applications of TCO.

The tutorial explains doping and conductivity in Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO) including, indium tin oxide (ITO), indium zinc oxide (IZO), and zinc oxide with various dopants, particularly aluminum (AZO) and gallium (GZO). Other alternative TCO, e.g., SnO2:F, are included in examples. TCO deposition by magnetron sputtering is emphasized, although other methods, e.g., evaporation, CVD/pyrolysis and Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) are briefly described, but can be expanded based upon class interest. Specific examples of the TCO Optical/Electrical (O/E) properties achieved with various processes are shown. Developing a robust deposition process for TCO is explained. The importance of substrate temperature and the effect of post-deposition processing also are discussed. TCO properties achieved with high temperature processes, e.g., on glass substrates, and low temperature processes, e.g., roll-to-roll on flexible plastic substrates, are compared and the large differences explained. Designing and engineering of TCO O/E properties for specific applications by controlling deposition process parameters are explained. Many application examples are presented.

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction (History and Review)
  • Conductivity and Transparency in Metal Oxides
  • Optical Properties Related to Conductivity
  • TTCO Performance Expectations, Theory and ITO Baseline
  • Overview of Major TCO Deposition Methods
  • Control of TCO Film Properties
  • Developing a Robust Deposition Process: The “Resistivity Well”
  • TCO Host (ZnO, In2O3, SnO2) Materials and Dopants
  • Designing and Engineering TCO Properties for Applications (Examples)
  • Appendix I, Thin Film Optics
  • Appendix II, Performance of TCO Grown by Energetic Deposition Methods
  • Appendix III, Advanced Doping Techniques

 

Instructor: Clark Bright, Bright Thin Film Solutions, LLC (retired 3M)


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-338 Application of Reactive Sputtering

This tutorial covers the fundamentals of reactive sputtering for applications. A short introduction in reactive sputtering is given, dealing with the occurrence of hysteresis and ways to control the process. A theoretical description using the Berg model will motivate the understanding of the reactions involved in the coating chamber. Following the basics, different options for process control will be discussed. Especially for processes that drift towards compound mode the risk of arcing is increasing. Ways to control and avoid arcing will be discussed. Different sensors for the process control will be presented and discussed with respect to benefits and limitations of each one. Reactive process control for industrial processes will be addressed. The course will conclude with recent developments.

Instructor: Ralf Bandorf, Fraunhofer IST - Braunschweig, Germany
Instructor: Holger Gerdes, Fraunhofer IST - Braunschweig, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-340 Plastic Optics - Coatings and Antireflective Structures

Modern optical applications need solutions for the antireflective equipment of polymer surfaces. The problems for coating comprise thermal limitations, incompatible mechanical properties of coating and substrate materials and the interaction between polymers and plasma. This course provides attendees with a basic knowledge of transparent polymer materials for optical applications. The course concentrates on polymer material properties, coating processes suitable for polymers, interactions between polymers and plasma, adhesion, stress, interference layers for polymers, hard coatings, top-layers to control the wettability and evaluation and testing procedures.

The course especially concentrates on antireflection coatings and antireflective sub-wavelength structures. The potential to produce antireflective interference coatings is shown for plasma-assisted vacuum deposition techniques as well as for sol-gel wet chemical processes. In addition, various procedures to obtain antireflective structures on polymers will be explained. Special solutions are discussed for acrylic, polycarbonate and cycloolefine polymers.

This course is of use for anyone who would like to get an overview about the problems connected with coating plastics. It is addressed to newcomers and experts on technical and high school level and to engineer and science students of higher terms.

Topical Outline:

 This course should enable you to:
• Specify the best suitable polymer materials for your application;
• Understand the special behavior of polymers during vacuum coating processes;
• Evaluate different techniques for antireflection of polymer surfaces; and
• Define suitable characterization tools and testing procedure for your plastic optics.

Instructor: Ulrike Schulz, Fraunhofer IOF - Jena, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-342 Thin Film Photovoltaic Solar Cells

This one-day course will provide a background of the present state of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) solar cell technologies, and markets within the context of expected national and global future energy requirements. The technologies discussed will be primarily those in present world-wide production, focusing on amorphous Silicon (a-Si), Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS), and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), although some discussion will be provided for emerging thin-film technologies, such as Kesterites.

For each technology, discussion will include historical development, present advantages and limitation, and possible future directions for improved devices and modules. A very condensed discussion of PV device physics will be provided to establish an appreciation of material parameters that are important to related device operation. The course will also discuss advancements in related technologies that may be critical for accelerating deployment of thin-film PV products. Examples of this include development of thin-film PV specific glass and device-specific transparent conducting oxides and buffer layers.

The course will conclude with a discussion of considerations for large-scale deployment of thin-film PV that are becoming much more important as these technologies mature. These considerations include: reliability and expected product lifetime, expectations of mineral resource abundance, perceived or real concerns material toxicity, and the important interrelationship between energy-pay-back time and production-doubling time.

Instructor: Timothy Gessert, Gessert Consulting, LLC


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-343 From Basic Aspects to Industrial Components and Applications in HIPIMS Technology

This course is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians, and students that are interested in the practical application and industrial use of high power impulse magnetron sputtering. This course will start with some fundamentals on magnetron sputtering and the transition to pulse sputtering, and especially HIPIMS. Besides the introduction of the technology, the focus will be on industrially relevant topics. This includes commercially available components like power supplies, plasma diagnostic, and process control. Finally, the course will conclude with an overview on industrially available products, i.e. coatings.

Topical Outline:
  1. Introduction of sputtering
  2. Introduction of high power impulse sputtering
  3. Plasma and process characteristics
  4. Operation modes in HIPIMS
  5. Commercial equipment
    1. Power supplies
    2. Diagnostic tools
    3. Feedback / process control
  6. Coating systems and applications
  7. Industrial coatings

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Ralf Bandorf, Fraunhofer IST - Braunschweig, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


B-101 Creating a Business from your Idea, Product or Service

The vacuum coating business has produced many products around the world, many of which, the end-user has no idea that it was enabled by a coating or process derived from vacuum coating. These coatings, processes and equipment produce optical, chemical and other physical properties that are unique to the specific product or application. Many courses and conferences deal with the specific science and application of these processes, but there are few that present and discuss how to actually move from an idea, product or service to create a profitable business. This course will delve into how you can create a business from your idea, product or service, starting with a basic analysis of whether there is a true business opportunity. The simple “back of the envelope” calculation allows an inventor or entrepreneur (or existing business) to quickly determine if there is a reason to invest time and resources into creating a business entity. From this point, the course will discuss business models, how to protect the idea (process or product) as well as how to structure a business around the specific business model. All of the discussion will be centered about actually deriving a profit from the investment of time and money. This class is intended for individuals and existing companies.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John T. Felts,


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


B-110 Getting the Most Value out of Marketing without Spinning your Wheels

This course is a crash course on Marketing for business leaders and their teams. If you are not sure you have the best, most effective and efficient Marketing you can have, this course is for you.This course is also for those who participate in Marketing without ever having received training for it (Engineers, Sales professionals…) and for those who want to broaden their knowledge of Marketing.

Following a philosophy of doing less better, this course teaches what elements of Marketing to use and how to use them for different purposes. This course challenges the notion that best practices are universal and that followed, they deliver universal benefits. It will demystify Marketing terminology such as branding, value proposition, segmentation, Marketing automation, SEO, SEM, content Marketing, Inbound Marketing, social listening….By the end of the class, you will be able to determine based on your situation, which Marketing activities to focus on, which to ignore, and why. Knowing why you make your choices will allow you to adjust your Marketing focus when your situation changes. This course will also include generally applicable principles and practical tips for getting more impact out of limited resources.

Selling internationally can be a challenge, especially without Fortune 500 level resources. The course will provide guidelines on how to approach selling outside of the U.S. and practical tips and resources for providing “essential to success” Marketing overseas. This section of the course is specifically geared to small and medium size businesses with limited resources.

This course will pay for itself through elimination of ineffective Marketing activities you identify during the day. The consistent application of principles you learn here will drive higher top and bottom line, as good Marketing has a positive impact on every aspect of a business: revenue growth, profitability, return on R&D investment, capital efficiency, product line, closing rate, margin, and employee recruitment and retention.

Instructor: Jocelyne O. McGeever,


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


B-120 Introduction to Patents and Trademarks

This course provides an overview of patents and their place in developing an intellectual property portfolio. It will cover the basics of what a patent is, how a patent compares to other forms of intellectual property, when a patent is useful, and the process required to obtain a patent. It will highlight what is required to write high quality patent, with a good chance of success. This course is intended for those with minimal to no experience with patents or for those who would like to refresh their knowledge. It is designed to provide an overview of the subject and help understand the costs and work involved in developing patents in order to make informed decisions about when they are useful.

Topical Outline:
  1. What is a patent?
    1. Definition of a patent
    2. History of patent law
    3. Types of patents
      1. Utility patents
      2. Design patents
  2. When is a patent useful? Patents vs. trademarks, copyright and trade secrets
    1. What is a trademark and when is it useful?
    2. What does copyright protect?
    3. What is a trade secret?
    4. Comparison of the different types of IP
  3. What qualifies as a patentable idea? What is required for an idea to be patentable?
    1. Things that cannot be patented: Laws of Nature, Physical Phenomena, Abstract Ideas
    2. Utility – Is the invention useful?
    3. Novelty – Is the invention something not previously known to the public?
    4. Nonobviousness – Is the invention an obvious variation of something already known?
    5. Statutory bars to patenting
  4. So, you have a patentable idea. Where should you file?
    1. Filing in the United States
    2. Filing in Europe – EU Patent office vs. individual countries
    3. Filing in China, Japan and India
  5. You have a patentable idea and have decided where to file. What constitutes a good application?
    1. Provisional or no provisional?
    2. Prior art search
    3. What to do if you find problematic prior art
    4. The individual parts of an application.
    5. How to write good claims
  6. You filed an application. What now?
    1. The patent office rejected the application
      1. How to respond to an office action
      2. Final vs. non final rejections
      3. Appealing a final rejection
  7. Your patent was granted.
    1. Maintenance fees
    2. Enforcement
    3. Licensing
  8. Trademarks
    1. Purpose of a trademark
    2. Distinctiveness – Does the proposed trademark stand out? Is it generic?
    3. Functionality – Trademark cannot be a functional feature of a product
    4. Use – Must use the trademark in commerce.
  9. Registering a Trademark
    1. Registered vs. unregistered trademarks
    2. Process to federally register a trademark
  10. Enforcing a trademark
    1. Geographic limits on trademark rights
    2. How to determine if a trademark is infringing on another mark.
    3. Permissible uses of another’s trademarks.
Instructor: Pamela Boling, Patent Attorney, Grauling Research, Inc. - California


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


B-130 Doing Business in the U.S.A.

The U.S. economy is a big market. A small win in the U.S. could be as impactful as a big one in the country of origin. But a big market also means more competition. Success requires conquering the double challenge of creating a new business and doing so in a foreign culture.

This course is intended for business leaders who are considering doing business in the U.S. or desire to improve the results of their existing approach. The course is organized into the stages encountered in chronological order and addresses the critical decisions and factors for success of each stage.

Topical Outline:

The instructor has held the top Strategic Marketing role in global B2B companies with Engineered Products in various industries, including thin films and coatings. She has built business in the U.S. for a foreign multinational, held a global leadership role in a U.S. Fortune 500 company, and has been an Executive in several smaller multinationals.

As a Management consultant, she has helped small and medium size business clients shape their business strategy for growth. Increase in profit from innovation, shortening in time to market for global companies, and higher business valuation at time of sale have resulted from her implementation of Stage Gate®, presented at SVC TechCon 2011, and market research for product design or new market entry. As a foreign-born professional, she is well acquainted with the impact of culture on business.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Jocelyne O. McGeever,


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


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