Loading
Tutorial Course Descriptions

Detailed Syllabus

C-217 Practical Production of Optical Thin Films

The course is intended to be valuable to new coating engineers, scientists, technicians, and technical managers as well as seasoned thin film scientists who are involved in design, development, and production of optical thin films. Basic principles are laid out from the beginning for those new to the field, but the evolution of the topics then moves into material and techniques useful to even the more experienced practitioners. No extensive background in mathematics or physics is required.

This course deals with optical thin film coating production. Advanced optical thin films are being used increasingly in communications, optical systems, and light control and collection applications. The sophistication of the optical coating industry is advancing rapidly to meet ever increasing demands for performance and production capability. New viewpoints, equipment, and processes are available to support advanced capability and efficiency. Objectives of this course include: to provide increased knowledge and understanding of the many practical aspects of optical coating production, to discuss the techniques and principles discussed, and to elucidate techniques and processes that are commonly successful in meeting optical coating needs.

Topical Outline:

• Select appropriate optical coating equipment to support the needed processes.
• Be aware of the importance of pumping effects and measurement accuracy and how to avoid pitfalls.
• Be familiar with the properties and process know-how for common optical coating materials.
• Further understand the use of energetic processes such as sputtering, plasma, and ion assist.
• Understand various monitoring and control strategies and their advantages and limitations.

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, Practical Production of Optical Thin Films, 3rd edition, Ronald R. Willey (Willey Optical, Consultants, 2015) [printed by Lulu.com Press].
 

Course Details:

TYPICAL EQUIPMENT FOR OPTICAL COATING PRODUCTION
1.1. INTRODUCTION
1.2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
   1.2.1. The Vacuum
   1.2.2. Deposition Sources
   1.2.3. Fixturing and Uniformity
   1.2.4. Temperature Control
   1.2.5. Process Control
1.3. TYPICAL EQUIPMENT
1.4. ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES
1.5. UTILITIES

MEASUREMENTS
2.4. INDEX & THICKNESS DETERMINATION
   2.4.1. Index of Refraction Determination
   2.4.2. Fitting Values for High Index Materials
   2.4.3. Fitting Values for Low Index Materials
   2.4.4. Using a Software Package for Index Fitting
   2.4.5. Tuning-In the Thickness of a Four-Layer AR
   2.4.6. Another Index Test Method

MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
3.1. PROCESS KNOW-HOW
3.1.1. Film Growth Models and Observations
   3.1.2. Chiral and Sculptured Coatings
   3.1.3. Stress in Coatings
   3.1.4. Laser Damage in Coatings
   3.1.5. Rain Erosion of Coatings
3.2. MATERIALS
   3.2.1. Silicon Compounds
   3.2.2. Titanium Oxides, TiO through TiO2
   3.2.3. Magnesium Compounds
3.3. MIXED MATERIALS and TERNARY OXIDES
3.4. CRYSTAL MONITOR CONTROLLER SETUP
   3.4.1 The Problem
   3.4.2 The Solution
   3.4.3 Setting Ramp and Soak Times
   3.4.5 Soak Level Before Shutter Opens
   3.4.6 Control Delay After Shutter Opens
3.5. IONS AND ION SOURCES
   3.5.1. Ion to Atom Arrival Ratio (IAAR) and Its Implications
   3.5.2. Kaufman Gridded Source
   3.5.3. Cold Cathode Source
   3.5.4. End-Hall Source
   3.5.5. IS1000/PS1500 Plasma/Ion Source
   3.5.6. Behavior of Three Types of Plasma/Ion Sources
   3.5.7. Ion/Plasma Sources with Fluoride Coatings

THIN FILM MONITORING AND CONTROL
4.1 OVERVIEW
4.2 SIMPLE MONITORS
   4.2.1. "Eyeball" and Measured Charge
   4.2.2. Optical Thickness Monitors
   4.2.3. Automation versus Manual Monitoring
4.3 CRYSTAL MONITORS
   4.3.1. Crystal Thickness Controllers
   4.3.2. Crystal Control of Eyeglass Coatings
   4.3.3. Calibrations and Variations
   4.3.4. Tooling Factors
   4.3.5. Variations
4.4 DIRECT VERSUS INDIRECT
4.5 CHIP CHANGERS
4.6 SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS
   4.6.1. Geometrical Factors
   4.6.2. Spectral Requirement Factors
4.7 ERROR COMPENSATION AND DEGREE OF CONTROL
   4.7.1. Narrow Bandpass Filter Monitoring
   4.7.2. Broad Band AR Coating Monitoring
4.8 ERROR ACCUMULATION
4.9 NBP FILTER MONITORING
   4.9.1. Signal to Noise in Monitoring
   4.9.2. Special Layers in NBP Monitoring
4.10 LAST TWO LAYERS OF NBP FILTERS
   4.10.1 Types of Final Layer Monitoring Techniques
   4.10.2 Basis of Predicted Thickness
   4.10.3 Summary of the Last Two Layers of a NBP Filter
4.11 MORE ON SENSITIVITY
   4.11.1 Effects of Errors on the Average Transmission
   4.11.2 Sensitivity of Turning Points in Monitoring
   4.11.3 Total Error Sensitivity of the Average Transmission
   4.11.4 Error Compensation in the Monitoring
4.12 OTHER EFFECTS ON OPTICAL MONITORS
   4.12.1 Error Due to Drift in the Monitoring Wavelength
   4.12.2. Effects of Thin Film Wedge on the Monitor Chip
   4.12.3. Error Due to Width of the Monitoring Passband
4.13 TURNING POINT DETECTION
   4.13.1. Precision versus Accuracy
   4.13.2. Optical Monitor with the Method of Schroedter
   4.13.3. Suggestion for Monitoring of DWDM Filters, Etc.
   4.13.4. More on Turning Point Detection
   4.13.5. Terminations by the Last Maximum and Minimum
4.14 CONSTANT LEVEL MONITORING
4.15 SENSITIVITY AND CORRECTION STRATEGIES
   4.15.1. Sensitivity versus Layer Termination Point
   4.15.2. Sensitivity Versus g-Value
   4.15.3. Constant Level Monitoring Strategies
4.16 PASSIVE VERSUS ACTIVE, STEERING
   4.16.1. Passive Versus Active Optical Monitoring
   4.16.2. Steering the Monitoring Signal Result
4.17 PRECOATED MONITOR CHIPS
   4.17.1. Eliminating the Precoated Chip
4.17.2. General Design Procedure
4.17.3. Specific Design Procedure
4.17.4. Results of the Procedure
4.18 DESENSITIZING FOR %T/%R ERRORS
4.19 OVERCOMING ABSORPTION
4.20 REVERSE & FORWARD ENGINEERING
4.20.1. A Narrow Bandpass Filter
4.20.2. A Special "Multichroic" Beamsplitter
4.20.3. A Very Broadband Antireflection Coating
4.20.4. The Rest of the Story
4.21 FENCEPOST MONITORING
4.21.1 Monitoring in General Cases
4.21.2 Monitoring Non-QWOT NBP Filters
4.21.3 New Approach to NBP Monitoring and Control
4.21.4 Preliminary Conclusions on Fencepost Monitoring
4.21.5 Simulation of Error Effects in FP Monitoring
4.22 DIRECT DOUBLE BEAM MONITORING
4.22.1 Single Beam versus Double Beam Optical Monitors
4.22.2. Intermittent Monitoring
4.23 ELLIPSOMETRIC MONITORING
4.24 BROAD BAND OPTICAL MONITORING

 

Instructor: Ronald R. Willey, Consultant, Willey Optical
Ronald R. Willey

graduated from the MIT in optical instrumentation, has an M.S. from FIT, and over 40 years of experience in optical system and coating development and production. He is very experienced in practical thin films design, process development, and the application of industrial Design of Experiments methodology. He is the inventor of a robust plasma/ion source for optical coating applications. He worked in optical instrument development and production at Perkin-Elmer and Block Associates. He developed automatic lens design programs at United Aircraft Research Laboratories. He formed Willey Corporation in 1964 and served a wide variety of clients with consulting, development, prototypes, and production. In 1981 he joined Martin Marietta Aerospace and was Director of the Optical Component Center where he was responsible for optical fabrication, coating, and assembly. He joined Opto Mechanik in 1985 where he was responsible for the development of all new technologies, new instruments, and production engineering. He was a Staff Scientist at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems. He holds four patents and has published many papers on optical coating design and production, optical design, and economics of optical tolerances. He has published books on optical thin film coating design and production since 1996. His recent books are “Practical Design of Optical Thin Films”, 4th Ed. (2014) and “Practical Production of Optical Thin Films,” 2nd Ed. (2012) He is a fellow of the Optical Society of America and SPIE and a past Director of the Society of Vacuum Coaters. He now is a consultant in the above-listed technical and forensic areas. Here he is concentrating on teaching optical thin film design and production, and also aiding clients in process development and improvement.


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information

Contact Us | Member Login  | Use and Privacy Policy | Forum Terms of Use
© Copyright 2006-2016, Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC™)
All Rights Reserved

Follow SVC on Twitter
Society of Vacuum Coaters
9639 Kinsman Road
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
Phone 505/856-7188
svcinfo@svc.org