Tutorial Course Descriptions

Detailed Syllabus

C-214 Pulsed Plasma Processing

This tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians, and others interested in using pulsed plasma equipment. Basic understanding or experience with plasmas is desirable but not required. The tutorial has some emphasis on pulsed sputtering equipment but the scope is much wider. The tutorial starts with a brief introduction to plasma and sheath physics in general, as it is relevant for coatings and films. A central part is the physics and engineering aspects of pulses plasmas, pulsed sheaths, and pulsed substrate bias. We move on to see what kind of effects one can obtain by using pulsed plasma systems. Such effects include the increase of the degree of ionization, suppression of arcing on targets and substrates, interface tailoring, and control of film stress and adhesion. Examples of applications are given, including when using the most extreme systems such as high power pulsed sputtering and pulsed arcs.

Topical Outline:

• Plasmas - An Introduction
• Sheaths
• Discharges
• Pulsed Discharges
• Dimensionless Parameters
• Pulsed Sheaths: Collisionless Model
• Pulsed Sheaths: Improvements to the Collisionless Model
• Pulsed Power Supplies
• Pulsed High-Voltage Substrate Bias
• Pulsed Arcs and Plasma Immersion Processing
• Pulsed Sputtering
• High-Power Pulsed Sputtering
• Pulsed Energetic Condensation and Control of Film Stress

Course Details:

1: Plasmas - An Introduction
    • Plasma as the 4th state of matter
    • Plasma properties and classification
    • Debye shielding and plasma frequency
    • Motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields
    • Maxwell’s equations
    • Distribution functions, cross sections, mean free path,
    • Ionization and recombination
    • Plasma models: hydrodynamic, kinetic, Monte Carlo
2: Sheaths
• Why do sheaths exist?
• Sheath voltage and particle fluxes
• Presheath and Bohm velocity
• Plasma potential and floating potential
• Child-Langmuir Law
• Sheath thickness
• Collisionless versus collisional sheath
3: Discharges
• Types of Discharges
• Paschen law
• I-V characteristics
• Glow versus arc discharge
• Thermionic electron emission and other emission mechanisms
• Constricted glow
• RF discharges
• Microwave discharges, electron cyclotron resonance
• E-beam evaporation with post-ionization
• Magnetron discharge
• Cathodic arcs
4: Pulsed Discharges
• Why pulsing?
• Frequency ranges
• Parameter shifting by pulsing
• Examples of pulsed plasmas
5: Dimensionless Parameters
6: Pulsed Sheaths: Collisionless Model
• Dynamic Child Law
• Time-depend sheath
• Ion matrix sheath versus fully developed, stationary sheath
• Characteristic times and lengths
7: Pulsed Sheaths: Improvements to the Collisionless Model
• Multiple pulse effects
• Dynamic current
8: Pulsed Power Supplies
• Classification according to switching principle
• Peak versus average parameters
• Switches: tubes, transistors, thyristors
• Pulse-forming-networks
9: Pulsed High-Voltage Substrate Bias
• Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation
• Plasma Immersion Processing (incl. deposition)
10: Pulsed Arcs and Plasma Immersion Processing
• Pulsed arc sources
• Dynamic plasma composition
• Metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIIID)
• Examples: trench filling and three-dimensional coating
11: Pulsed Sputtering
• Types of pulsed sputtering
• Medium frequency sputtering
• Arc suppression
• Unipolar versus bipolar processing
12: High-Power Pulsed Sputtering
• Power levels for ionization
• Pulsed I-V characteristic
• Self-sputtering
• Plasma diagnostics
13: Pulsed Energetic Condensation and Control of Film Stress
• Energetic condensation
• Nucleation and growth under (self-) ion bombardment
• Kinetic energy- stress relation
• Thermal spike model
• Molecular dynamics simulation
• Example: diamond-like carbon

Instructor: André Anders, Plasma Applications Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
André Anders

is a Senior Scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. He grew up in East Germany and studied physics in Wroc?aw, Poland, Berlin, Germany, and Moscow, Russia (then Soviet Union). He got his PhD in physics from Humboldt University, Berlin and worked at the Academy of Sciences in East Berlin until 1991. The fall of the Berlin Wall gave him the opportunity to move to Berkeley, California, where he joined Berkeley Lab to work on plasma technologies. He is the author of more than 270 papers in refereed journals, author/editor of three books including "Cathodic Arcs" (Springer, 2008). André serves as Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Applied Physics and was elected Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), American Vacuum Society (AVS), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and the Institute of Physics (IoP). 

This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program

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