Tutorial Course Descriptions

Detailed Syllabus

C-313 Practical Aspects of Permeation Measurement: From Polymer Films to Ultra-high Barriers (half-day)

More and more applications based on web-coating require detailed permeation characteristics. Examples are flexible electronics (displays, solar cells, batteries etc.) and vacuum insulating panels. This tutorial is designed for those who wish to learn about methods to measure the rate of permeation of gases and vapors through films. The tutorial will provide an understanding of basic permeation processes through polymers and barrier layers, and basic principles and apparatus used to measure the permeability of polymers and barrier films. We will introduce chemical sensors used in permeation measurements and discuss recent developments based on nanotechnology.


Topical Outline:
  • Basic permeation processes for gases and vapors through polymers and barrier layers for non-reactive and reactive species, barrier materials
  • applications of barrier layers (food packaging, flexible electronics, vacuum insulating panels)
  • ultra-high barrier technologies
  • methods to measure the rate of permeation: different methods (total pressure, coulorimetric method, Ca-test, mass spectrometric method)
  • gas sensors
  • ASTM standards
Course Details:


  • Basic permeation processes
    • Permeation of gases and vapours
    • Permeation through polymers and barrier layers
    • Barrier materials
    • Ultra-high barrier technologies
  • Applications of barrier layers
    • Food packaging
    • Flexible electronics (displays, solar cells)
    • Vacuum insulation
    • Fuel cells
    • Pharmaceuticals
  • Methods to measure the rate of permeation: substrates, barriers, ultra-high barriers
    • Total pressure
    • Gravimetric
    • Coulorimetric Sensor
    • ZrO2 sensor
    • Infrared sensor
    • Ca-degradation (Ca-test)
    • Mass spectrometer
    • Radioactive tracers
    • Other methods (Surface Acoustic Wave, Quartz Crystal Oscillator, Atom Probe Technology, Quenched Fluorescence, Thermal Conductivity)
    • Chemical sensors
    • General Remarks: Pitfalls in permeation measurements
  • ASTM Standards

Literature values

Instructor: Holger Nörenberg, Technolox Ltd. - United Kingdom
Holger Nörenberg is founder and Managing Director of Technolox Ltd., which specializes in novel permeation measurement equipment. During his time as Academic Director of Research at the University of Oxford, Oxford-Toppan Center, he was responsible for the development of permeation measurement equipment. He has a physics degree from the University of Rostock and worked in Germany, Japan and the UK. He has about 50 scientific and technical publication as well as several patent applications.

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