C-213 Introduction to Smart Materials
This tutorial will focus on the basic principles and mechanisms of smart materials and structures, and provide a spring board for further study. Smart materials and systems are now being used in virtually all areas of technology, and in many high and low-tech applications and products, and have thousands of applications in today’s world. In the context of this tutorial "smart material" is a general term for a broad category of multifunctional materials having a specific property (optical, mechanical, electronic, etc.) that can sense the environment and be controllably modified. They are used to color and control the transmission of windows, precisely position moving parts in machinery and aircraft, sense motion and changes in locations of structures, change the shape of structures (including aircraft wings and nose cones), monitor corrosion and stress in materials and structures, and control many biological functions. Appliances as simple as toasters use smart materials to control the darkness of toast. Many of these materials and structures emulate biological systems that can adapt to changes in their environment, and development of these materials involves combining several technological disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, solid state physics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and robotics. The tutorial will also address how smart materials rely on molecular and atomic engineering of materials in such a way that the functionality of the material in an integral part of the microstructure itself.
- Definition of smart materials
- Brief history of smart materials
- Smart materials versus smart structures
- Range of applications
- Types of materials
- How functionality of materials is increased
- Smart optical materials
- Piezoelectric materials, actuators, transducers
- Smart magnetic materials
- Shape memory materials
- Introduction of smart biological materials
- Engineering smart materials
- Looking into the crystal ball: organics and biological systems rule
The objective of this tutorial is to introduce scientists, engineers, technicians, supervisors, business staff, and anyone interested in smart materials and related technologies. Smart materials and systems are now being used in virtually all areas of technology, and in many high and low-tech applications and products. This tutorial will focus on the basic principles and mechanisms of smart materials and structures, and provide a spring board for further study. It will also address how smart materials rely on molecular and atomic engineering of materials in such a way that the functionality of the material in an integral part of the microstructure itself. Thin film materials and MEMS are critical to this technology.
This tutorial provides the participant with a solid introduction to the following topics:
Definition of smart materials: What is a smart material? The term “smart material” means a lot of things to a lot of people. The basic simple-minded definition is: a “smart material” is a general term for a broad category of multifunctional materials for which a specific property (optical, mechanical, electronic, etc.) can sense the environment and can be controllably modified. The distinction between smart materials and smart structures will be discussed in detail.
Range of applications for smart materials: An overview of how and why smart materials are used will be presented, from the most rudimentary toaster thermostat to sophisticated biological systems.
Types of smart materials: Electrical, magnetic, mechanical and optical smart materials will be reviewed. There are distinct materials types and crystalline structures that are conducive to smart behavior.
Mechanisms: The basic mechanisms for smart behavior will be presented in detail. This is one of the most important sections of the tutorial, and can be related to virtually every smart material.
How functionality of materials is increased: Engineering mechanical and electrical properties is critical in developing smart materials. Methods used to engineer electrical, optical and mechanical properties and increase functionality beyond that of standard materials will be discussed.
Smart optical materials: The performance of electrochromic, photochromic, thermochromic, photonic band gap and low-e bulk and thin film materials will be stressed.
Piezoelectric materials: These materials are used in actuators, microactuators and transducers. Electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy, and mechanical displacement is converted to a voltage through deformation of the crystal lattice and electric dipole interactions.
Smart magnetic materials: Actuation and displacement is achieved by aligning magnetic domains. The use of magnetic hysteresis will be described in detail.
Shape memory materials: The crystalline of many materials, including polymers, can be changed by heating or cooling the material. Change of phase causes internal stresses in the material that have a reproducible hysteresis effect. These stresses cause the material to deform or reform.
Introduction of smart biological materials: Smart biological materials and systems are used for drug delivery, blood sampling, artificial limbs, dialysis and much more. Many of these systems simulate biological functions. The example of an artificial lung will be described in detail.
Looking into the crystal ball: The future of smart materials rests with organics and biological systems. Micro and nanotechnology are taking us into the human body and even into cells.Instructor: Peter Martin, Columbia Basin Thin Film Solutions LLC
worked at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) for over 29 years where he currently holds an Emeritus Laboratory Fellow appointment At PNNL he developed thin film coatings for energy, biomedical, space and defense applications. He is currently President of Columbia Basin Thin Film Solutions LLC and recent Past President of SVC. He has written over 400 technical publications, three R&D 100 Awards, two Federal Laboratory Consortium awards, and voted Battelle 2005 Inventor of the Year. He has over thirty US patents, and teaches short courses on Smart Materials and Energy Materials and Applications.
This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program