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Detailed Syllabus

C-207 Evaporation as a Deposition Process

Evaporation is a technology used widely to produce thin films in vacuum. The tutorial describes the basics of evaporation and its utilization in various technological processes. The tutorial provides the conceptional basis for a wide range of evaporation techniques. It is designed to meet the needs of both a newcomer to the field and the experienced professional. Experienced scientists and engineers will have an opportunity to broaden their view of this field and deepen their understanding of evaporation processes.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Thin film deposition in vacuum
  • Evaporation mechanism—Thermodynamic of evaporation, evaporation rate, vapor pressure of elements, evaporation of compounds, evaporation of alloys
  • Film thickness uniformity and purity—Deposition geometry, film thickness uniformity, conformal coverage, film purity, deposition rate monitoring and process control
  • Evaporation sources—General considerations, resistance heated sources, sublimation sources, induction heated sources, electron beam heated sources, arc evaporation, laser ablation
  • Reactive evaporation—Reactive and activated reactive evaporation
  • Ion-assisted evaporation—Ion plating, enhanced ion plating, plasma-assisted deposition, ion-beam-assisted deposition
  • Microstructure of evaporated thin films—Film growth mechanisms, structural zones, ion-assisted growth
  • Deposition systems for thin film deposition by evaporation—Major parts of the system, web coatings systems, vacuum batch systems
  • When should we use evaporation as a deposition process
Course Details:

Evaporation is a technology used widely to produce thin films in vacuum. The tutorial describes the basics of evaporation and its utilization in various technological processes. The tutorial provides the conceptional basis for a wide range of evaporation techniques. It is designed to meet the needs of both a newcomer to the field and the experienced professional. Experienced scientists and engineers will have an opportunity to broaden their view of this field and deepen their understanding of evaporation processes.

The tutorial is divided into fourth parts and conclusion: mechanism of evaporation and various evaporation sources, thin film growth mechanism and its

variation by ion-bombardment, deposition process that is using evaporation, various deposition arrangements based on evaporation sources, and, in conclusion, general requirements to a deposition system with evaporation sources.

The first part of the tutorial starts with description of atomistic deposition in vacuum as a three step process including material vaporizing, atom and molecule transportation from the source to the substrate, and atom and molecule deposition. All three steps are discussed and their influences on the thin film properties are considered.

The mechanism of evaporation is described in details using high-school basics of physics and chemistry, and thermodynamics. Consideration of evaporation sources include traditional ones (resistance heated, sublimation, inductive heated, and electron beam sources) and widely introduced in the last decade sources based on arc evaporation and laser ablation.

The second part of the tutorial is dedicated to the formation of thin film microstructure discussed in the sense of growing most desirable dense structures that posses high refractive index, superb mechanical properties, high chemical and environmental stability, etc. Thin film growth is a sequential of steps that include adsorption, surface diffusion, island formation and coalescence. Possible influence on all of these steps during deposition is main motive of this analysis that is illustrated using experimental and modeling data. Necessity of ion-bombardment of the growing films to get high quality structures is a well proved conclusion. Various structural zone diagrams are presented for thin films of elemental and compound compositions.

The third part of the tutorial is committed to thin film deposition process that is using evaporation. It starts with reactive evaporation that is used to deposit thin films of stoichiometric compounds. Activated reactive evaporation is based on additional generation of radicals and is the most widely used today way of compound deposition. Ion bombardment of a thin film and stimulated processes in it are described in dependence of ion energy and the nature of the thin film. The description is widely supported by experimental and computational data. Variation of thin film density, grain size, microstructure, surface morphology, and others is illustrated.  Possible co-evaporation from two independent sources is illustrated.

The fourth part of the tutorial describes various deposition arrangements based on evaporation sources. Activated reactive evaporation arrangement is usually including a plasma radical source. Ion-bombardment of the growing film is provided in the arrangements that are known as ion and enhanced ion plating, and plasma and ion-beam ion-assisted deposition. Parameters of various ion-beam sources are described,

The tutorial conclusion gives a general overview of deposition system with evaporation sources. General requirements for the evaporation and ion-beam sources, substrates holders, vacuum chamber, pumping system, and process control are discussed for vacuum systems to make web, large-area, and optical coatings.

Instructor: Abe Belkind, Abe Belkind and Associates
Abe Belkind

has 15 years of research and development experience in industry and more than 30 years in academia. From 1981 to 1996 he was a Lead Scientist for BOC Coating Technology, where he investigated and developed vacuum and plasma technologies for the deposition of thin film coatings. From 1996 to 2005, he was an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Chemical, Biochemical and Materials Engineering and later in the Department of Physics and Engineering Physics at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ. In 1997, he created a successful consulting company, now called A. Belkind & Associates, LLC. He is an expert in various technologies for depositing and designing metal alloy, oxide, carbide, nitride and other thin films; plasma surface cleaning and treatment; and methods of film analysis. He has received 10 patents, published a book, and written more than 100 technical papers. Dr. Belkind is the recipient of a BOC Group Technology award and two awards from the Latvian Academy of Science.


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program

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