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Education

Webinar Tutorial Program

Convenient, Relevant, Interactive, and Affordable Education Opportunities

The SVC Webinar Program is a convenient approach to education, featuring SVC's most popular tutorials, covering topics relevant to technical staff and operators.  These Webinars are presented by recognized professionals in the vacuum coating community and allow participants the ability to interact with the instructor during the live presentation. 

This on-line Webinar format offers an affordable option to individuals and companies seeking to fit meaningful training into a short period of time.  SVC offers both Live and On-Demand (recorded) versions of webinars.


Live Webinar Offerings:
3-hour live presentations with interactive Q&A

Cost: 3-hour Live Webinar + Course Materials
Member: $325 | Non-Member: $400 | Full-Time Student: $200

Click the title for a detailed description, topical outline and instructor bio.

Check back soon for the latest live webinar lineup.

Group Discounts
Register 5 or more employees from your organization in the same webinar and receive a discounted fee of $285 per person (member or non-member).
Contact SVC to arrange a group registration. 505-856-7188, svcinfo@svc.org


On-Demand Webinar Offerings:
On-Demand Webinars are streaming recordings of previously presented live webinars. Start, stop, and navigate through the presentation at your conenience.

Cost: 3-hour On-Demand Webinar + Course Materials
Member: $195 | Non-Member: $270 | Full-Time Student: $135

Click the title for a detailed description, topical outline and instructor bio.

W-105: "Evaporation for Thin Film Deposition"
Register
Instructor: S. Ismat Shah, University of Delaware

W-110: "Advanced Social Media for B2B - Strategies and Success" Register
Instructor: Thomas A Meshanko

W-204: "Basics of Vacuum Web Coating" Register
Instructor: Donald J. McClure, Acuity Consulting

W-207: "Production Vacuum Systems: Operation and Maintenance" Register
Instructor: Robert (Bob) Langley, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired)

W-208: "Sputter Deposition" Register
Instructor: David Glocker, Isoflux Incorporated

W-212: "Troubleshooting for Thin Film Deposition Processes" Register
Instructor: Gary S. Ash, Castle Brook Corporation

W-218: "Optical Thin Film Monitoring and Control" Register
Instructor: Ron Willey, Willey Optical, Consultants

W-219: "Optical Thin Film Materials and Process Know-How" Register
Instructor: Ron Willey, Willey Optical, Consultants

W-309: "Cathodic Arc Deposition" Register
Instructor: André Anders, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

W-314: "Practical Aspects of Plasma Modification of Polymer Materials and Plasma Web Treatment" Register
Instructor: Jeremy Grace, IDEX Corporation

W-317: "The Practice of Reactive Sputtering" Register
Instructor: Bill Sproul, Reactive Sputtering, Inc.

W-332-A "Thin Film Characterization: Structural, Elemental and Chemical"   Register
Instructor: Tom Christensen, University of Colorado

W-332-B "Thin Film Characterization: Physical, Mechanical and Functional"   Register
Instructor: Tom Christensen, University of Colorado

W-326: "Manufacture of Precision Evaporated Coatings" Register
Instructor: Jim Oliver, Vacuum Innovations, LLC. and University of Rochester LLE

W-337 "Introduction to Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO)"   Register
Instructor: Clark Bright, Bright Thin Film Solutions (3M retired)


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Special Offer:
Register five or more employees from your company and receive a discount!
Contact SVC at 505/856-7188 or svcinfo@svc.org for details

Become a Member Today and Receive the Discounted Member Rate.

 

Webinar Tutorial Program
Course Descriptions, Topical Outlines and Instructor Biographies


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W-105 - Evaporation for Thin Film Deposition

This webinar provides a comprehensive description of the process of evaporation that is utilized for the synthesis of thin films. Starting from the basic physics involved, the webinar will guide the participants through all the three steps required for the thin film formation: evaporation, vapor transport, and condensation. A basic knowledge of vacuum will be provided to help understand these three processes. The webinar includes detailed description of all the major evaporation processes along with the hardware used for each of these processes. A brief introduction of the thin film nucleation and growth processes will also be covered only to the extent that is relevant to evaporation processes.

This Webinar will be equally useful for students, engineers and technicians who are working with any thin film deposition process or are planning to work in related areas.

Topical Outline:

  • Description of processes involved in evaporation, including the basic physical ideas.
  • Evaporation mechanisms, including basic chemistry behind these mechanisms.
  • Vacuum, concepts of mean free path, line of sight, etc.
  • Description of evaporation hardware
  • Evaporation Processes, resistive evaporation, e-beam evaporation, pulsed laser deposition, arc evaporation, etc.
  • Issues in evaporation: thickness uniformity, compositional homogeneity, impurities, etc.
  • Thin film nucleation and growth during evaporation
  • Process variables and the effect of these variables on film properties
Instructor Biography:
S. Ismat Shah graduated from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1986 from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. He worked for the DuPont Company as senior Staff Scientist for 12 years before joining the University of Delaware in 1999, where he has a joint appointment in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Department of Physics and Astronomy. He has been involved in the field of thin films and nanostructured materials for 22 years. He has over 174 publications in the field and six patents awarded. He is the Chair of the SVC Education Committee. He teaches the first on-line course offered by the SVC, in collaboration with the University of Delaware, on Vapor Deposition Processes.

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W-110 - Advanced Social Media for B2B - Strategies and Success

Social media has become prevalent in mainstream media and in many aspects of our daily lives. Social media has also become a powerful tool allowing businesses to promote their products/services and engage with customers in new ways. This webinar will cover social media strategies and tactics that businesses can use for more effective marketing, sales growth, customer service and competitive advantage. This webinar will also describe success stories, most recent trends of social media and tools that measure success and boost results.

Topical Outline:

  • Developing a Social Media Plan that is aligned with Strategy, Marketing, Sales and Customers
  • Best Practices with LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and others
  • Engaging the Customer in New Ways
  • Using Social Media to Establish Your Technical Expertise
  • Importance of Valuable and Relevant Content
  • New Trends and Tools
  • Developing and Executing the Plan
  • Measure Success
  • Hands-on Exercises and Attendee Involvement
  • And much more
Instructor Biography:
Thomas A. Meshanko has been in the role of senior market development consultant and has worked with executives and business owners from over 100 companies since 2000. Client companies are from a broad range of industries including metals, plastics, chemicals, coatings, glass, energy, environmental, construction, mining, heavy equipment, devices, military, aerospace, transportation, technology and others. Mr. Meshanko works with businesses to develop and execute strategic marketing campaigns and sales improvement efforts to grow business and to become more competitive in the global market place. In recent years, Tom has expanded his services to include more global marketing capabilities and social media strategies for business. Mr. Meshanko is also a public speaker in the fields of "B2B Digital Marketing" and "Social Media for Industry -- Strategies and Success".

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W-204 - Basics of Vacuum Web Coating

This webinar is intended for roll coater machine operators, maintenance personnel, technicians, engineers, scientists, supervisors, and others who would benefit from an introduction to issues related to roll-to-roll vacuum coating onto polymer substrates. This webinar will emphasize practical aspects of the topics, and the treatment will be descriptive with little mathematics used. The webinar focuses strongly on coatings made by resistance evaporation but touches on e-beam evaporation and sputter coating. If your primary interest is sputtering onto webs, please see our full-day course, “Sputter Deposition onto Flexible Substrates” (C-211).

 
Topical Outline:
Sources of information about vacuum web coating
Markets for vacuum web coated products
Vacuum technology issues related to web coating
Substrates for vacuum web coating
Web handling and web winding systems currently in use
Web cooling issues
Deposition processes:
o   resistance evaporation
o   e-beam evaporation
o   sputter deposition
Process and product monitoring methods
 
 
Instructor Biography:
Donald J. McClure founded Acuity Consulting and Training to continue his love affair with vacuum coating and vacuum web coating in particular. Don retired from 3M's Corporate Research Laboratory after spending twenty five years working on a broad range of products and projects that utilized vacuum roll coating and processing. Don has published his work extensively and is a co-inventor on 19 US patents. He served the Society of Vacuum Coaters in many roles including President and Secretary. He has offered his courses on the "Basics of Vacuum Web Coating" and "Sputter Deposition onto Flexible Substrates" for many years. He was recognized by the SVC with their 2004 Nathaniel Sugerman Award for lifetime achievement.


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W-207 - Production Vacuum Systems: Operation and Maintenance

This tutorial is designed to teach the basic fundamentals of vacuum technology to technicians, equipment operators, line process operators, and maintenance personnel. This tutorial addresses how to use and maintain an existing vacuum effectively, not how to design a system. The introduction consists of a very basic explanation of what a vacuum is and how it is attained and proceeds to an explanation of the three gas flow regimes (i.e., viscous, transition, and molecular flow). Various types of pumps are described to demonstrate principles of vacuum technology and to familiarize the student with the major types of pumps for both the viscous and molecular flow conditions. Presented next is a guide for selecting an appropriate pressure gauge for most production applications. This includes a description of major types of gauges and details their useful pressure range and measurement precision.

The next section deals with the care and maintenance of pumps and vacuum systems, including both compressible elastomer gasket and metal gasket systems. The unique role that water plays in both pumpdown from atmosphere and in outgassing is addressed, and techniques to ameliorate its harmful effects are presented. The effects of other unique "bad actors" are also discussed. Many useful charts and tables will be presented and explained as well as examples of actual vacuum processing systems.

Topical Outline:

  • Introduction to vacuum
  • Explanation of the three gas flow regimes
  • Viscous flow pumps
  • High vacuum (molecular flow) pumps
  • Guide for selecting a pressure gauge
  • Care and maintenance of pumps and vacuum systems, including both compressible elastomer gasket and metal gasket systems
  • Evaluating system performance: pumpdown rate and leak-up rate
  • Cleaning and conditioning of vacuum components and system
  • Operation of vacuum systems: crossover pressure, interlocks, and safety
  • Pumpdown and outgassing
Instructor Biography:
Robert (Bob) A. Langley retired from Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1994 and Sandia National Laboratories in 1999. He has performed research in the fields of atomic and molecular physics, solid state physics, material science, vacuum science and technology, upper atmospheric phenomena, fusion power research, and high-energy accelerators, published over 130 scientific papers and is a Fellow of the American Vacuum Society. He obtained his BS, MS and PhD in physics at Georgia Tech and accepted visiting academic positions at Princeton University and University of New Castle, Australia. He is associate editor of Vacuum Technology and Coating magazine, teaches vacuum related courses for the American Vacuum Society and the Society of Vacuum Coaters, served on the Board of Directors of the AVS, and at present consults on vacuum science and technology, and microwave material processing.

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W-208 - Sputter Deposition

Webinar Description:
This course emphasizes issues of practical importance to those using sputtering as a manufacturing process. It is intended for engineers, scientists and technicians who would like an understanding of the factors that influence product throughput, coating quality, and process robustness and reliability. The primary focus will be on the use of planar magnetrons of various shapes, but other sources will be covered as well. The relationships between the sputtering conditions and important film properties- such as microstructure, composition, stress, and adhesion will be discussed. New developments that are finding their way into practical applications will also be highlighted. No prior formal training in sputtering is required.

- Sputtering plasmas and the nature of the sputtering process
- Cathode designs and coating uniformity
- Film nucleation and growth
- Effects of substrate temperature and energetic bombardment on film structure
- Coating stress and the causes of stress
- Biased sputtering and the use of unbalanced magnetrons
- Sources of substrate heating
- rf, dc, pulsed dc, and ac reactive sputtering of dielectrics
- Process control methods for reactive sputtering
- Arcing, disappearing anodes, and other process stability issues
- High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (HPPMS or HIPIMS)

Instructor Biography:
David Glocker founded Isoflux Incorporated, a manufacturer of magnetron equipment, in 1993. He has more than 30 years’ experience in thin film research, development, and manufacturing and has taken a number of new processes from laboratory-scale feasibility studies through successful production. He is an inventor or co-inventor of 31 U.S. patents and an author of more than 30 research papers in the areas of sputter source design, plasmas and plasma characteristics, sources of substrate heating in sputtering, and the control of sputtering processes and sputtered film properties. He also is the co-editor of The Handbook of Thin Film Process Technology, a major reference work in the field.


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W-212 - Troubleshooting for Thin Film Deposition Processes

Vacuum deposited thin films are used for optical coatings, electrically-conductive coatings, semiconductor wafer fabrication, and a wide variety of other uses. They may be deposited on glass, plastic, semiconductors, and other materials. Usually, a vacuum deposition process produces durable, adherant films of good quality. But what do you do when things go wrong? Not all films can be deposited on all substrate materials. Sometimes films peel off or crack. Other times they are cloudy, absorbing, scattering, or have other unacceptable properties.

This tutorial will teach you about techniques and tools that can be used to identify the source of the problems, correct the process, and get back into production. It will also help in learning how to develop new processes and products. The tutorial is designed for process engineers and technicians, quality control personnel, thin film designers, and maintenance staff.

Topical Outline:
• Mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of thin films
• Process parameters that affect film properties
• Gauge and instrument calibration
• Properties of substrate surfaces
• Measurement of film stress
• Detection of contamination
• Introduction to surface analysis techniques (Auger, ESCA, SIMS, FTIR)
• Substrate preparation and cleaning

Instructor Biography:
Gary S. Ash is President of Castle Brook Corporation, Dartmouth, MA. The company provides technical and management consulting services for the vacuum and cryogenics industry. He has had more than 35 years of experience in vacuum systems, pumps and other components, deposition processes ranging from evaporation to sputtering to molecular beam epitaxy. Engineering experience includes equipment and process design, manufacturing process development, materials and failure analysis, and applications support. In addition, he has had extensive experience in product strategy, development, and manufacturing planning for industrial products and services. He was previously employed by the CTI-Cryogenics division of Helix Technology Corporation, ASTeX, RIBER division of Instruments SA, Optical Coating Laboratory Inc., Spectrum Systems division of Barnes Engineering Co., AAI Corporation, and American Electronic Laboratories. He holds BS and MS degrees in electrical engineering from Cornell University and a PhD in optical physics from Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland.


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W-218 - Optical Thin Film Monitoring and Control

This Webinar is intended to be valuable to new coating engineers, scientists, technicians, and technical managers as well as seasoned thin film scientists who are involved in design, development, and production of optical thin films. This tutorial deals with monitoring and thickness control factors and techniques which are important to optical thin film coating production. Advanced optical thin films are being used increasingly in communications, optical systems, and light control and collection applications. The sophistication of the optical coating industry is advancing rapidly to meet ever increasing demands for performance and production capability. Objectives of this tutorial include: to provide an overview of the great variety of thin film thickness monitoring techniques which have been used, and to give more detailed discussions of the use and application of the more useful techniques, equipment, and software.

Topical Outline:

   • Overview of film thickness observation and control
   • Early simple monitoring
   • Quartz crystal monitoring
   • Ophthalmic coatings
   • Direct vs. indirect monitoring
   • Chip changers
   • Sensitivity to and compensations for errors
   • Various monitoring strategies
   • Other effects on optical monitors
   • Accuracy vs. precision
   • "Fencepost", "Dual Beam", ellipsometric, and broad band optical monitoring
   • Recommendations to enhance error compensation

Instructor Biography:
Ron Willey graduated from the MIT in optical instrumentation, has an M.S. from FIT, and over 55 years of experience in optical system and coating development and production. He is very experienced in practical thin films design, process development, and the application of DOE methodology. He worked in optical instrument development and production at Perkin-Elmer and Block Associates. He formed Willey Corporation in 1964 and served a wide variety of clients with consulting, development, prototypes, and production. In 1981 he joined Martin Marietta Aerospace and was Director of the Optical Component Center where he was responsible for optical fabrication, coating, and assembly. He joined Opto Mechanik in 1985 where he was responsible for the development of all new technologies, new instruments, and production engineering. He was a Staff Scientist at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems. He holds four patents and has published many papers on optical coating design and production, optical design, and economics of optical tolerances. He has published books on optical thin film coating design and production since 1996. His recent books are "Practical Design of Optical Thin Films", 3rd Ed. (2011) and "Practical Production of Optical Thin Films," 2nd Ed. (2012) He is a fellow of the Optical Society of America and SPIE and a past Director of the Society of Vacuum Coaters. He now is a consultant in the above-listed technical and forensic areas.




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W-219 - Optical Thin Films Materials and Process Know-How

This Webinar is intended to be valuable to new coating engineers, scientists, technicians, and technical managers as well as seasoned thin film scientists who are involved in design, development, and production of optical thin films. This tutorial deals with materials and process factors which are important to optical thin film coating production. Advanced optical thin films are being used increasingly in communications, optical systems, and light control and collection applications. The sophistication of the optical coating industry is advancing rapidly to meet ever increasing demands for performance and production capability. Objectives of this tutorial include: to provide increased knowledge and understanding of the behavior of materials and deposition processes used in optical coating production, and to elucidate materials, techniques, and processes that are commonly successful in meeting optical coating needs.

Topical Outline:
   • Energy transfer between depositing material, substrate, and energetic atoms or ions
   • Effects of vacuum pressure and mean free path
   • Growth characteristics of materials and their density
   • Stress in coatings and its control
   • Material deposition processes for some common optical thin films
   • Energetic and reactive processes
   • Importance of, and techniques for, rate control
   • Behavior and operation of sources for Ion Assisted Deposition
   • New technologies which might effect future optical thin films

Instructor Biography:
Ron Willey graduated from the MIT in optical instrumentation, has an M.S. from FIT, and over 55 years of experience in optical system and coating development and production. He is very experienced in practical thin films design, process development, and the application of DOE methodology. He worked in optical instrument development and production at Perkin-Elmer and Block Associates. He formed Willey Corporation in 1964 and served a wide variety of clients with consulting, development, prototypes, and production. In 1981 he joined Martin Marietta Aerospace and was Director of the Optical Component Center where he was responsible for optical fabrication, coating, and assembly. He joined Opto Mechanik in 1985 where he was responsible for the development of all new technologies, new instruments, and production engineering. He was a Staff Scientist at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems. He holds four patents and has published many papers on optical coating design and production, optical design, and economics of optical tolerances. He has published books on optical thin film coating design and production since 1996. His recent books are "Practical Design of Optical Thin Films", 3rd Ed. (2011) and "Practical Production of Optical Thin Films," 2nd Ed. (2012) He is a fellow of the Optical Society of America and SPIE and a past Director of the Society of Vacuum Coaters. He now is a consultant in the above-listed technical and forensic areas.




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W-309 - Cathodic Arc Deposition

Webinar Description:

Cathodic arc deposition is a high rate deposition process well established for some applications such as hard, protective, and decorative coatings. The rather unusual properties of cathodic arc plasmas are discussed, including their consequences for film properties such as high film density and stress. Cathodic arc deposition is put in context of other PVD coating techniques such as sputter and evaporation. Of special concern is the infamous macroparticle problem, which can be addressed with filters other strategies. This webinar is intended for engineers, technicians, and students interested in understanding the underlying physics of cathodic arc plasmas and energetic film growth processes, and practical aspects of deposition from the vapor/plasma phase. 

Topical Outline:
   • Motivation: Why would one use cathodic arcs for coatings?
   • Some plasma basics: plasma versus sheath
   • The physics of cathodic arc discharge
      o Explosive electron emission and fractal nature of cathode spot
      o spot types
      o plasma properties
      o macroparticle generation
   • Plasma Guiding and Filtered Arcs
   • Deposition of films
      o Film growth mechanisms
      o Energetic condensation / biasing
      o Nitrides, Oxides incl. TCOs, ta-C (DLC)
   • Deposition equipment
      o DC versus pulsed
      o arc triggering
      o anodes
      o power supplies
      o filter integration
      o system integration

Instructor Biography:
André Anders is a Senior Scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. He grew up in East Germany and studied physics in Wrocław, Poland, Berlin, Germany, and Moscow, Russia (then Soviet Union). He got his PhD in physics from Humboldt University, Berlin and worked at the Academy of Sciences in East Berlin until 1991. The fall of the Berlin Wall gave him the opportunity to move to Berkeley, California, where he joined Berkeley Lab to work on plasma technologies. He is the author of more than 270 papers in refereed journals, author/editor of three books including "Cathodic Arcs" (Springer, 2008). André serves as Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Applied Physics and was elected Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), American Vacuum Society (AVS), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and the Institute of Physics (IoP).


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W-314 - Practical Aspects of Plasma Modification of Polymer Materials and Plasma Web Treatment

Webinar Description:

This Webinar emphasizes issues of practical importance for those who use plasma modification techniques to treat polymers in the manufacturing or research environments. It is intended for engineers, scientists, and technicians who would like to gain a better understanding of the influence of plasma process factors on treatment performance, as well as the practical issues related to process robustness, process speed, and ease of scale-up. While much of the focus is on treatment of polymer webs, the key concepts presented are applicable to polymer surfaces in general and plasma treatment of materials in general.

-Industrial Applications of Plasmas for Polymer Surface Modification
-Effects of Plasmas on Polymer Surfaces
-Practical Aspects of Plasma Modification
-Practical Testing of Plasma-Treated Surfaces and Interfaces
 

Topical Outline:
1. Industrial Applications
   • Definitions, applications & themes
   • Examples of industrial applications

2. Effects of Plasmas on Polymer Surfaces
   • Plasma basics
   • Polymer chemistry basics
   • Chemical changes in treated surfaces
   • Physical changes in treated surfaces

3. Practical Aspects of Plasma Modification
   • The concept of treatment dose
   • Process factors and their roles
   • Treatment process scaling
   • Identifying promising treatment chemistries
   • Plasma modification examples
      - Silver-PET adhesion
      - Gelatin-PEN adhesion
      - Atomic Layer Deposition on Polymers
• Process verification and stability

4. Practical Testing of Plasma-Treated Surfaces and Interfaces
   • Non-linear responses (relevant to surface saturation effects)
   • Wetability/coatability
   • Adhesion and fracture toughness
   • Chemical stability of adhesive joints

Instructor Biography:
Jeremy M. Grace is currently a senior filter design engineer at Semrock, Inc. where he is working in the area of thin-film interference filters for life sciences and other applications. Prior to his position at Semrock, he was a senior principal scientist at the Eastman Kodak company, where he worked in the areas of plasma surface modification, thin-film adhesion, sputter deposition, and organic vapor deposition. He has written several patents and journal articles in the area of plasma modification of polymers. He is a member of the Society of Vacuum Coaters and the American Vacuum Society, and served as chair of the Upstate New York Chapter of the AVS (UNY-VAC) from 1998-2000.


W-317 - The Practice of Reactive Sputtering

This Webinar tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians, materials scientists, and coating developers, who have a desire and need to understand how the reactive sputter deposition process really works. The goal of the tutorial is to give the student a thorough understanding of the factors that affect the reactive sputtering process in order that the student can apply this knowledge to improve his or her reactive deposition process and achieve both high deposition rates and excellent film properties.

This tutorial starts with the basics of reactive sputtering by reviewing the effects of the reactive gas on a sputtering process. It will be shown that where and how the reactive gas is introduced into the chamber has a significant effect on the sputtering process. Flow control versus partial pressure control of the reactive gas will discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be pointed out. Partial pressure control allows operation in the transition region between the metallic and poisoned states of the target, and films can be deposited at much higher rates with excellent properties using partial pressure control compared to flow control of the reactive gas. It is important to use the right type of power to assure that there is no arcing during a reactive deposition. The different types of power that can be used for reactive sputtering along with the partial pressure sensors will be discussed. The requirements for a partial pressure control system along with commercially available controllers will be presented. Reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is an emerging area that is advancing the state of the art for sputtering and reactive sputtering. HPPMS will be reviewed with respect to reactive sputtering, and the advantages of this new technology will be shown.

Topical Outline:
• Basics of reactive sputtering
• Flow control versus partial pressure control of the reactive gas
• Power supplies for reactive sputtering
• Reactive gas sensors
• Control systems for reactive sputtering
• Reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

Instructor Biography:
Bill Sproul is the founder and owner of Reactive Sputtering, Inc. Prior to starting his own company, he worked at Advanced Energy Industries, the Borg-Warner Corporation, Northwestern University, and Sputtered Films, Inc. Throughout his career he has been involved with the sputter deposition and reactive sputter deposition of hard materials for wear and corrosion applications. He is the author or co-author of more than 175 technical papers. He has 11 patents to his credit, and he is the inventor of the high rate reactive sputtering process. He is a past president of the American Vacuum Society, and he chaired the International Conference on Metallurgical Coating and Thin Films (ICMCTF) three times. He also served on the SVC Board of Directors. He is an AVS Fellow and Honorary Member, and in 2003 he received the SVC Mentor Award and the AVS Thornton Award. In 2011 he was awarded the SVC Nathaniel H. Sugerman Memorial Award.


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W-326 - Manufacture of Precision Evaporated Coatings

This Webinar provides detailed information on how to establish and improve evaporative coating processes for precision optical coatings.  Design considerations for coating chambers, such as source placement, substrate fixturing, control of film thickness uniformity, and thickness monitors will be discussed.  Trade-offs in the selection of source materials, means of controlling film structure, and the influence on the performance of the coated component will be considered.  Process details will be approached with a focus on practicality; film properties must be measurable and system designs must be practical and cost-effective.  These process concepts are readily implemented in standard evaporation systems, providing significant improvements in existing coating facilities.

Topical Outline:
• Chamber components for an evaporation system
• Deposition monitoring and control
   - Optical monitoring
   - Advanced methods for quartz crystal monitoring
• Thin-film uniformity concepts and calculations
   - Source placement
   - Substrate rotation and fixturing
   - Analysis and selection of system gearing
   - Design of uniformity masks to correct film thickness variations
• Stress in optical coatings
   - Theoretical basis for film stress
   - Measurements of stress in thin films
   -  Process design to minimize stresses in optical coatings

Instructor Biography:
Jim Oliver is founder and owner of Vacuum Innovations, LLC and is a research engineer at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics.  A graduate of the University of Rochester's Institute of Optics, his work has focused on process design and modeling for precision evaporated coatings.  Thin-film uniformity control is of particular interest, having developed advanced distribution models and planetary rotation systems.  He also teaches optical coating design at the Institute of Optics as well as at the Institute's annual thin flim summer school program.


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W-332-A - Thin Film Characterization: Structural, Elemental, and Chemical

This webinar examines the broad range of techniques available to characterize thin film materials with an emphasis on structural, elemental and chemical characterization. A separate webinar treats mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic and optical characterization. We examine the range of properties of interest and how thin film properties may differ from bulk properties.

The main emphasis of the webinar is an overview of a wide range of techniques for the structural, elemental, and chemical characterization of thin films. We examine imaging techniques such as optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and scanning probe microscopies (STM, AFM …). We also explore techniques, which provide information about structural properties including X-ray Diffraction (XRD), stylus profilometry, Quartz Crystal Monitors (QCM) and density measurements. Structural characterization from optical techniques such as ellipsometry is also considered.

The webinar examines techniques which explore elemental and chemical properties such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, ESCA), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). AES is used as a prototype to examine quantitative analysis of spectroscopic data. Many of these chemical also provide information about structural properties.

Topical Outline:

Overview of thin film characterization
      What do we want to know?
      How could we find this out?
            Available probes
            Counting, spectroscopic, mapping techniques
      Why are thin films different from bulk?
Imaging techniques
      Optical microscopy
      Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
            Electrons in solids
      Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
      Scanning probe microscopies
            Overview: near field effects
            Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)
            Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
• Structural properties
      X-ray diffraction (XRD)
      Stylus profilometry
      Quartz crystal monitors (QCM)
      Density
      Ellipsometry
• Chemical / structural properties
      Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)
            Quantitative data analysis in spectroscopies
            Instrumental sensitivity factors
            Depth profiling by inert gas sputtering
      Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX)
      Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Analysis (WDX, electron microprobe)
      X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, ESCA)
      Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
      Rutherford Backscattering (RBS)
      Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Instructor Biography
Tom Christensen is a Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. He received his B.S. in physics from the University of Minnesota in 1979 and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Applied Physics from Cornell University. After several years at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque he joined the University of Colorado faculty in 1989 where he has served as Department Chair and Dean. He has worked with vacuum technology, thin film technology and surface characterization since 1980 and has taught local AVS or SVC short courses since 1992.


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W-332-B - Thin Film Characterization: Physical, Mechanical and Functional

This webinar examines the broad range of techniques available to characterize thin film materials with an emphasis on physical, mechanical, optical, thermal, electrical and magnetic characterization. A separate webinar treats structural, elemental and chemical characterization. We examine the range of properties of interest and how thin film properties may differ from bulk properties.

The main emphasis of the webinar is an overview of a wide range of techniques for the physical, mechanical and functional characterization of thin films. Characterization techniques for optical properties such as ellipsometry, reflectance, interferometry and optical scattering are considered. Characterization of thermal properties by micro-thermal microscopy and thermal diffusion measurements are presented.

Techniques for determining electrical and magnetic properties are also discussed. These include resistance using four point probe and van der Pauw methods, Hall effect, and magneto-optical Kerr effect. The emphasis here is on materials characterization as opposed to device characterization.

The webinar concludes with an examination of techniques used to explore mechanical properties such as stress-curvature measurements, friction testing, micro/nano indentation and adhesion tests.

Topical Outline:

• Overview of thin film characterization
      What do we want to know?
      How could we find this out?
             Available probes
             Counting, spectroscopic, mapping techniques
      Why are thin films different from bulk?
• Optical / structural properties
      Reflectance
      Ellipsometry
             Single wavelength vs. multiple angle vs. spectroscopic
             Ellipsometry models
      Optical scattering
      Interferometry
• Thermal properties
      Micro-thermal microscopy
      Thermal diffusion
• Electrical properties
      Resistance/resistivity
             four point probe
             Van der Pauw
      Hall effect
• Magnetic properties
      Magneto-optical Kerr effect
• Mechanical properties
      Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS)
      Stress-curvature measurements
             Tensile vs. compressive stress
      Friction testing
             Pin on flat
             Pin on disk
      Micro/nano indentation
      Adhesion tests

Instructor Biography
Tom Christensen is a Professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. He received his B.S. in physics from the University of Minnesota in 1979 and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Applied Physics from Cornell University. After several years at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque he joined the University of Colorado faculty in 1989 where he has served as Department Chair and Dean. He has worked with vacuum technology, thin film technology and surface characterization since 1980 and has taught local AVS or SVC short courses since 1992.


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W-337 - Introduction to Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO)

This webinar is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians, and others, interested in understanding the conductive and optical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCO). The topic is introduced with some important historical developments. The major topic of the tutorial is indium tin oxide, ITO, but some other TCO also are described. The performance expectations for TCO, both from theory and experiments, are discussed. Typical electrical/optical (E/O) properties for ITO in production on glass and plastics are summarized. The fundamentals of conductivity ("TCO physics 101") in transparent metal oxides are explained. Many optical properties of TCO are related to its conductivity. Understanding this interaction allows engineering of TCO electrical/optical (E/O) properties. Examples of designing and engineering TCO properties for specific common applications are presented. A methodology for TCO deposition, which develops a relationship ("Resistivity Well") for the process control of E/O properties, is described and experiment results are shown. Some basic knowledge of thin films and vacuum deposition is assumed, although not required. Post-deposition processing also is briefly discussed. A summary of some alternative TCO E/O properties is presented.

Topical Outline:
• Introduction
• TCO Performance Expectations - Theory and Experiment
• Typical ITO Properties - Baseline for Alternatives
• Conductivity in TCO - "TCO physics 101"
• Deposition Methodology for TCO - "Resistivity Well"
• Control of Properties - Doping
• Engineering TCO for Applications - Design Examples
• Alternative TCO - Properties Summary

Instructor Biography:
Clark Bright was a Senior Staff Scientist and Group Technical Leader with 3M Corporate Research Laboratory before he retired in December 2012 to form a consulting practice - Bright Thin Film Solutions. At 3M he developed roll coated, vacuum deposited multilayer organic and inorganic thin film products for optical, conductive and barrier applications. Previously, he was Vice President at Presstek, Inc., and Delta V Technology subsidiary, where he directed the R&D of transparent conductive oxides, barrier coatings and polymer multilayer (PML) technology. While Director of Product Development at Southwall Technologies, he led teams developing sputter deposited transparent low e and solar control coatings, transparent conductive metal and oxide coatings, and durable conductive (ITO) multilayer antireflection coatings on plastic film. He served 12 years on the Board of Directors, and was President of Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC). In 2009, he received the SVC Mentor Award, and the Nathaniel Sugerman Award in 2012. He has presented and published numerous papers on optical coatings including book chapters on transparent conductors in "Transparent Electronics: From Synthesis to Applications" (Wiley, 2010) and "Optical Thin Films and Coatings from Materials to Applications" (Woodhouse, 2013). He holds 27 U.S. patents in the field.


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