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Education

Tutorial Titles and Descriptions

The Short Tutorial Program Roster of tutorials has been developed by SVC instructors for SVC and the vacuum coating industry.

Tutorial Schedule
Most of these tutorials are presented at the SVC Annual Technical Conference

The majority of the tutorials are available for presentation as part of the SVC On Location Education Program - a program whereby the instructor and tutorial can be brought to your site or geographical location.

Tutorial Classification

The tutorial codes (V, C and M) indicate whether the emphasis of the tutorial is primarily on:
V - VACUUM TECHNOLOGY
C - VACUUM COATING DEPOSITION PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGY
M - MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

The tutorial number indicates the level of topic specialization. Lower numbers are basic or introductory in nature, and higher numbers are a more specialized treatment of a specific topic.

Each tutorial title is linked to the tutorial description, topical outline and to the instructor's biographical sketch. The tutorial description is then linked directly to the detailed tutorial syllabus.

 

Tutorial Titles

The group of tutorials on Vacuum Technology, Components and Systems (V-201, V-202, and V-203) is designed in modular form where each module can be taken as an individual stand-alone tutorial, or all three  tutorials can be taken at a discounted fee.

V-201 High Vacuum System Operation
V-202 Vacuum System Gas Analysis
V-203 Vacuum Materials and Large System Performance
V-204 Vacuum Systems, Materials and Operation
V-206 Helium Leak Detection Theory and Technology
V-207 Practical Aspects of Vacuum Technology: Operation and Maintenance of Production Vacuum Systems
V-208 Basic Analysis of Mass Spectrometer Spectra NEW!
V-209 Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology and Vacuum Gauging
V-210 Pumps Used in Vacuum Technology
V-211 Vacuum Hardware and Vacuum Leak Detection
V-304 Cryogenic High Vacuum Pumps
M-101 Basic Principles of Color Measurement
M-102 Introduction to Ellipsometry (half-day)
C-102 Introduction to Evaporation and Sputtering (half-day or full-day)
C-103 An Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processes
C-104 An Introduction to Optical Coatings
C-203 Sputter Deposition (two – day course)
C-204 Basics of Vacuum Web Coating
C-205 Introduction to Optical Coating Design NEW!
C-207 Evaporation as a Deposition Process
C-208 Sputter Deposition in Manufacturing
C-209 Material Science Aspects of Plasma Processing (half-day)
C-210 Introduction to Plasma Processing Technology (half day)
C-211 Sputter Deposition onto Flexible Substrates
C-212 Troubleshooting for Thin Film Deposition Processes
C-213 Introduction to Smart Materials
C-214 Pulsed Plasma Processing
C-215 Vacuum Coatings and Plasma Processing for Biomedical Applications
C-216 Practical Design of Optical Thin Films
C-217 Practical Production of Optical Thin Films
C-304 ITO and Other Transparent Conductive Coatings: Fundamentals, Deposition, Properties, and Applications
C-306 Non-Conventional Plasma Sources and Methods in Processing Technology (half day or full day) NEW!
C-307 Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition
C-308 Tribological Coatings
C-309 Cathodic Arc Deposition (half day)
C-310 Plasma Immersion Techniques for Surface Engineering
C-311 Thin Film Growth and Microstructure Evolution
C-312 R2R Metal Strip Coating - PVD Deposition and Applications (half day)
C-313 Practical Aspects of Permeation Measurement: From Polymer Films to Ultra-high Barriers (half-day)
C-314 Plasma Modification of Polymer Materials and Plasma Web Treatment
C-315 Reactive Sputter Deposition
C-316 Introduction to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Processes, Chemistries and Applications (half day)
C-317 The Practice of Reactive Sputtering
C-318 Nanostructures: Strategies for Self-Organized Growth (half-day)
C-319 Introduction to Energy Conversion Materials and Technology
C-320 Diamond Like Carbon Coatings – from Basics to Industrial Realization (half-day)
C-322 Characterization of Thin Films
C-323 High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
C-324 Atmospheric Plasma Technologies (half day)
C-325 Introduction to Nanotechnology: What the Technical and Business Professional Should Know (half-day)
C-326 Manufacture of Precision Evaporated Coatings (half-day)
C-327 Introduction to Photoactive Materials and Photovoltaics
C-328 Properties and Applications of Tribological Coatings (half day or full day)
C-330 Introduction to Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies (half day)
C-332 Zinc Oxide-Based and Other TCO Alternatives to ITO: Materials, Deposition, Properties and Applications
C-333 Practice and Applications of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) (half-day)
C-334 Manufacture of Precision Evaporative Coatings (full-day version of C-326)
C-335 Understanding Solar Cells (half day)
C-336 Transparent Gas Permeation Barriers on Flexible Substrates
C-337 ITO and Alternative TCO: From Fundamentals to Controlling Properties
C-338 Application of Reactive Sputtering (half day or full day)
C-339 Mechanical Heart Valve Thrombosis: An Introduction and Review (half day)
C-340 Plastic Optics - Coatings and Antireflective Structures (half day)
C-341 Processing on Flexible Glass – Challenges and Opportunities NEW!




V-201 High Vacuum System Operation

This tutorial is intended for those who wish to learn how mechanical pumps and high vacuum pumps form a high vacuum system and how three such systems are operated. At the end of this tutorial, using all available materials, a participant should be able to explain the operation of diffusion, cryo, and turbo pumped systems; understand the differences between a viscous gas and a rarefied gas; and show how these differences govern the operation of the systems.

Topical Outline:

Introduction to vacuum systems

  • Rotary mechanical pumps
  • Diffusion pumps and systems
  • Cryogenic pumps and systems
  • Turbomolecular pumps and systems

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd edition, John O’Hanlon (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John F. O’Hanlon, Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-202 Vacuum System Gas Analysis

This tutorial is intended for those who wish to understand how to analyze the performance of a vacuum system. Basic vacuum gauges that measure pressure in the low vacuum and in the high vacuum region will be described. Residual gas analyzers provide a useful method of analyzing the performance of a system and how various components are operating by looking at the partial pressures of individual gases. The class concludes with a discussion of leak detection: when it should be attempted and how to detect leaks with a pressure gauge, an RGA, and a mass spectrometer leak detector.

Topical Outline:

Gas laws

  • Gas flow
  • Vacuum gauges
  • Residual gas analyzers
  • Leak detection

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd edition, John O’Hanlon (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John F. O’Hanlon, Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-203 Vacuum Materials and Large System Performance

This tutorial is intended for those who wish to learn the basics of vacuum materials and large system performance. Materials used for sealing and constructing high vacuum systems, as well as fluids for pumping and lubricating will be reviewed. The performance of large systems used for coating rigid and flexible substrates forms the backbone of work done by members of the SVC. Here we will describe the performance of systems used for coating rigid substrates (batch coaters) and flexible substrates (roll coaters). We will characterize when, why, and how to cross-over properly from roughing pumping to high vacuum pumping for all types high vacuum system types. We will illustrate the effects of outgassing, permeation and gas loading on system operation.

Topical Outline:
  • Materials in vacuum
  • Seals, joints, and valves
  • Rough pumping large systems
  • System performance
  • Multichamber systems

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd edition, John O’Hanlon (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John F. O’Hanlon, Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-204 Vacuum Systems, Materials and Operation

This tutorial course is intended for those who wish to learn how diffusion and cryo pump systems operate, how to choose materials for vacuum use, and how to pump water vapor properly during the rough pumping cycle. At the end of this tutorial, a participant should be able to explain the operation of diffusion, and cryo pumped systems; understand how materials are chosen for use in vacuum, and how to rough pump water vapor without producing condensation.

Topical Outline:

  • Introduction
  • Rotary mechanical pumps
  • Diffusion pumps and systems
  • Cryogenic pumps and systems
  • Materials suitable for vacuum use
  • Methods for rough pumping water vapor.

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, A User’s Guide to Vacuum Technology, 3rd edition, John O’Hanlon (John Wiley & Sons, 2003).

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: John F. O’Hanlon, Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-206 Helium Leak Detection Theory and Technology

The tutorial course is designed for people who have minimal knowledge of helium leak detection applications, terminology and detector design aspects, but who will be tasked with evaluating and conducting their company’s leak detection requirements such as selecting the correct test method, acquiring equipment and/or performing the detection processes.

As it is important to know the inner working of a helium leak detector and to understand its basic maintenance requirements, the emphasis of the course however will be focused on using the leak detector in various applications. This task requires a basic understanding of vacuum technology as well as its components and design aspects. Without this knowledge it could be more difficult to determine when to actually start using a helium leak detection process and most importantly which method to select.

Additionally, proper understanding of how to connect a helium leak detector to a system and how to apply the helium tracer gas are essential elements in obtaining fast and correct results. Missing out on these criteria quite often leads to missing leaks, faulty indications and losing valuable time in a production environment. Also, not being able to meet tightness criteria because of the incorrect application of helium leak detection technology, can affect the quality of the products being created in a vacuum environment such as a coating or evaporation system.

Topical Outline:
  • What is a leak? Sizes of leaks and how they can affect system and production performances.
  • Terms and units of measure used (the “buzzwords”) in vacuum and leak detection technology.
  • Vacuum technology basics (gas load, conductance, virtual leaks, permeation, pumps speed, etc).
  • The correlation between pump speed, gas load and pressure.
  • Understanding and recording vacuum system behaviors to know when applying helium leak detection technology.
  • Operational principle of a helium leak detector.
  • Helium leak detector versions/models.
  • Helium leak detection methods (hard vacuum, sniffing, bombing).
  • How to best hook up a leak detector to a vacuum system.
  • Discussion of the various vacuum pumps used in systems and their effect (benefits or drawbacks), when performing a leak detection process.
  • Response time, cleanup time and appearance time definitions.
  • Parallel operation.
  • In depth understanding of helium spraying and sniffing technology
  • Calibration procedures.
  • The proper use of the “Zero” feature.
  • Determining an acceptable leak rate and selecting the appropriate test method and leak detector (portable or stationary, wet or dry, sensitivity, degree of automation).
  • Helium management (controlling the ambient helium concentration, detector background levels, the use of purges) and leak detector maintenance issues.
  • Basic leak detector operation (start-up, calibration, testing, venting).
  • Practical use of the leak detector preferable in conjunction with process equipment.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Pieter N. Palenstijn,


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-207 Practical Aspects of Vacuum Technology: Operation and Maintenance of Production Vacuum Systems

This tutorial is designed to teach the basic fundamentals of vacuum technology to technicians, equipment operators, line process operators, and maintenance personnel. This tutorial will address how to use and maintain an existing vacuum effectively, not how to design a system. The introduction will consist of a very basic explanation of what a vacuum is and how it is attained and proceeds to an explanation of the three gas flow regimes (i.e., viscous, transition, and molecular flow). This is followed by a description of the types of pumps used in the viscous flow region (e.g., mechanical displacement pumps, venturi/suction pumps, and sorption pumps). Types of high vacuum pumps are next discussed; these include diffusion pumps, turbopumps, and cryopumps. Presented next is a guide for selecting a pressure gauge which includes a description of various types of gauges and details their useful pressure range and measurement precision.

The next section deals with the care and maintenance of pumps and vacuum systems, including both compressible “rubber” gasket and metal gasket systems. The unique role that water plays in both pumpdown from atmosphere and in outgassing is addressed, and techniques to ameliorate its harmful effects will be presented. The effects of other unique “bad actors” are also discussed. Many useful charts and tables will be presented and explained.

Participants are requested to present any problems or difficulty that they may be experiencing with their vacuum systems for discussion. This makes for very interesting examples, and the problem might actually be solved.

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction to vacuum
  • Explanation of the three gas flow regimes
  • Viscous flow pumps
  • High vacuum pumps
  • Guide for selecting a pressure gauge
  • Care and maintenance of pumps and vacuum systems, including both compressible “rubber” gasket and metal gasket systems
  • Evaluating system performance: pumpdown rate and leak-up rate
  • Leak detection and correction
  • Cleaning and conditioning of vacuum components and system
  • Operation of vacuum systems: crossover pressure, interlocks, and safety
  • Applications of vacuum systems for vacuum coating
  • Pumpdown and outgassing
  • Descriptions of other vacuum related tutorials presented by SVC

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Robert (Bob) A. Langley, Oak Ridge Scientific Consultants


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-208 Basic Analysis of Mass Spectrometer Spectra NEW!

Developed mainly for technicians and process engineers, the main objectives of this course are to impart enough knowledge to the student to analyze spectra, use that analysis to determine what problems may exist in their process chamber, and thereby help in trying to solve these problems.

This course deals with analysis of Mass Spectrometer (RGA) data. It begins at an elementary level, first describing atoms, then atomic electronic structure, followed by a description of the filling of electronic shells and sub shells. Using information about how atoms are formed, we move to molecule formation and discuss the different types of molecular bonds. Understanding molecular formation is essential to understanding and interpreting mass spectra. The operation of a mass spectrometer is next described, especially phenomena that occur in the ion source. Using all this information we begin discussion regarding the interpretation of the spectra from a mass spectrometer. Typical mass spectrometer spectra are shown and analysis of the spectra is demonstrated.

The course begins with elementary nuclear physics, followed by atomic and molecular physics and continues with the study of the chemistry of molecules. A few pertinent examples, e.g. water and methane, are presented and used to demonstrate how one analyzes more complicated molecules.

We briefly discuss mass spectrometer operation because one needs to understand how the operation affects spectral analysis. Probably the most important effect is the interactions of molecular ions in the ion source to form new/different molecular ions. Other areas addressed are molecular breakup in the ion source and nuclear isotope effects.

Various data presentation types are described along with suggestions for their preferred order for different types of analyses. Additionally many relevant tables, graphs, and references are presented.

Topical Outline:

• Basic nuclear physics knowledge presentation
• Basic atomic electronic structure presentation
  - Atomic physics
  - Filling order of electronic shells and sub shells
  - Use of the periodic table in mastering molecular formation

• Discussion of the formation and chemistry of molecules which is essential to understanding and interpreting mass spectra

• Discussion of the operation of a mass spectrometer especially phenomena which occur in the ion source, i.e. molecular formation and breakup

• Typical mass spectrometer spectra are shown for representative molecules and analysis of the spectra are demonstrated

• Vacuum chamber leak checking and correction using a mass spectrometer

Instructor: Robert (Bob) A. Langley, Oak Ridge Scientific Consultants


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


V-209 Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology and Vacuum Gauging

This one-day course is designed to provide a foundation necessary to understand general scientific concepts of vacuum technology in the morning, and expands into a discussion of the design of use of vacuum gauges in the afternoon. A time for lunch generally separates these two content areas. The course can be customized somewhat to focus on content that may be of particular importance to a group of students.

The morning content begins with a brief history of vacuum technology, starting at about the time of Galileo. The course proceeds with a description of the differences between the development of the physical properties of pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of gas - as described in the historic “Gas Laws,” and continues with a discription of the difference and importance of what is now known as the “Kinetic Theory” of gases. The discussion continues describing how gas molecules move from one place to another in a vacuum system, the parameters of molecular vs. viscous flow, finally describing the parameters of conductance and pumping speed. With these parameters established, the foundations of an equation to calculate the pump-down time are presented and examples given. The limitations of this simple equation are presented, which leads into a discussion of the critical importance that outgassing – from within the chamber - has on the ability of a chamber to attain a desired vacuum pressure within a desired time.

The afternoon content describes typical gauges used in vacuum technology. This content begins with a discussion of the importance of understanding the concept of precision of pressure measurements, and the importance of knowing when high-precision vs. low-precision measurements are required. This is compared to other situations when when a simple, yet accurate, trend analysis may be appropriate and/or preferred. Discussion continues with review of the difference between measuring an actual pressure (in force per unit area) and measuring some other parameter - and relating it back to a force per unit area. The first category of vacuum gauges discussed are manometers (Hg-type, diaphragm, Bourdon, capacitive, and piezoresistive manometers). The second category of gauges includes thermal gauges (thermocouple- and Pirani-type gauges). The final gauge category is ionization gauges (hot-filament and cold-cathode types). The course concludes with a discussion of partial-pressure gauges, with the majority of the discussion being an introduction to the instrumentation and use of residual-gas analyzers, primarily of the quadrupole type.

Instructor: Timothy Gessert, National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL, retired


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-210 Pumps Used in Vacuum Technology

This one-day course is designed to overview pumps typically used in the main stream of vacuum technology. Although the content of the course is most optimally presented when preceded by the one-day course on Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology and Vacuum Gauges, it can often be customized to provide necessary framework and/or background for the concepts and discussion presented.

Course presents an overview of the 3 basic types of physical pumping mechanisms (Positive Displacement, Momentum Transfer, and Capture). Vacuum pumps used in typical vacuum applications are discussed as examples of each pumping mechanism. Discussion also provides a baseline description of the types of maintenance activities that can be expected when using each specific type of vacuum pump. The section on positive-displacement pumps begins with a detailed discussion of the historic oil-sealed, rotary-vane pump. This pump is often familiar to most of the students, it remains widely used in may industry applications, and therefore its description provides a useful baseline for many of the terms that will be used to describe the other types of pumps. The discussion on oil-sealed pumps also describes development and use of modern vacuum-pump fluids and greases, and their proper selection and use. Discussion then moves to positive-displacement dry pumps (blower pumps, claw compressors, screw pumps, piston pumps, diaphragm pumps), with particular emphasis placed on the development, applications, and maintenance of the design, use, and maintenance of modern scroll pumps. The next category of pump discussed are momentum transfer pumps, including the historic diffusion pump, as well as the modern turbomolecular, drag, and regenerative pumps. The final category of pumps is capture pumps. This discussion includes a quick review of the historic bulk-getter pumps (e.g., Titanium sublimation) as well as modern non-evaporating getter (NEG) pumps. Sputter-ion pumps are next discussed, but the detail level of this discussion is gauged to the student’s needs. The final pump discussion relates to cryogenic-type pumps, with a brief review of cryosorption and cryocondensation pumps, and a much more detail detailed discussion of cryogenic pumps. The section on cryogenic pumps also includes detailed discussion of the development, operation, and typical maintenance issues related to cryogenic closed-cycle helium refrigeration systems.

Instructor: Timothy Gessert, National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL, retired


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-211 Vacuum Hardware and Vacuum Leak Detection

 This one-day course is designed to overview materials and processes typically used in vacuum technology, including equipment and processes used for basic vacuum Leak Detection. Although the content of the course is most optimally presented if the course is preceded by appropriate content from other courses, such as Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology, Vacuum Gauges, and Vacuum Pumps, it can often be customized to provide necessary framework/background for the concepts and discussion presented. The course is typically divided into Vacuum Hardware in the morning, and Vacuum Leak Detection in the afternoon, separated by a time for lunch.

The course begins with a general discussion of the many types of material or process parameters that need to be considered with regard to the design of specific vacuum hardware. These parameters include not only well-established physical parameters, (e.g., structural, electrical, optical, thermal, vapor pressure) but also less-well-defined, yet very important practical parameters (e.g., machinability, formability, vapor pressure, absorption/outgassing rate, etc.). With these foundation in place, the course proceeds into three main areas of examples and discussions: (1) Materials used in vacuum systems and components - including detailed discussions of particular metals, elastomers, glasses, and ceramics; (2) Procedures used in joining and forming vacuum materials - including both non-demountable (e.g., welding) and demountable (e.g., flanges) designs and procedures; (3) Components used in vacuum systems - including various types of valves (e.g., butterfly, poppet, gate, throttle, etc.), gas-flow components, feedthroughs, viewports, and filtration equipment. In all cases, the influence that important operational concerns, such as desired vacuum pressure and operational temperature, will have on component selection are discussed.

Content on Vacuum Leak Detection includes: (1) A foundation of various types of products that require low or very-low leakage; (2) An explanation of various units of leak rate, and; (3) Discussion of situations that lead to real vs. perceived leaks. Different types of leak-detection options are presented including dye-penetrant, radioisotope exposure, and high- or low-pressure methods. The remainder of the course focuses on the most typical leak detection techniques in vacuum technology - “low-pressure methods.” This discussion begins with examples of why an understanding “standard system performance” is essential to effective leak detection procedures. While most discussion focuses on the theory and operation of the Helium Mass Spectrometer (HMSLD), other “low-pressure” techniques are also presented (e.g., methanol penetration). The discussion of the HMSLD begins with its historical development, maintenance issues, and typical methods of using any HMSLD (e.g., Bagging, Probing, Sniffing, and Bombing). With an understanding of HMSLD use established, guidance on various hook-up configurations are presented, followed by key mathematical parameters (i.e., Rate of Pressure Rise, Ultimate Pressure Increase, and Time Constant of the Response Time). The course concludes with guidance of various typical options available to fix a leak when one is found.

Instructor: Timothy Gessert, National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL, retired


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


V-304 Cryogenic High Vacuum Pumps

Cryogenic high vacuum pumps are used on a wide variety of vacuum deposition and process equipment (evaporation, sputtering, ion implant), space simulation systems, and on analytical instruments. They produce high pumping speeds for all gases and work over a wide range of pressures. To use these pumps effectively, it is helpful to understand their advantages as well as their limitations. The focus will be on cryopumps using closed-loop helium gas refrigerators, but other types of liquid cryogen and sorption pumps will be discussed.

 

The tutorial is designed for users and operators of vacuum systems, process engineers, equipment designers, and maintenance staff.

Topical Outline:
  • General properties and uses for cryopumps
  • Refrigerators and compressors
  • Review of vacuum theory basics
  • Pumping speeds and capacities for different gases
  • Dealing with heat and gas loads
  • Selecting the right size pump
  • Methods of regeneration
  • Maintenance procedures
  • Safety issues
  • Troubleshooting
Instructor: Gary S. Ash, President, Castle Brook Corporation


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-101 Basic Principles of Color Measurement

Color is measured in many ways, both visually and instrumentally. This tutorial is a primer on color and color measurement for designers, engineers, and technicians who need to understand basics of color and color measurement. Discussion will include how color arises, the tristimulus and opponent color methods that have evolved to quantify color, effects that change color, setting color tolerances, and devices used for visual and instrumental color measurement and evaluation. Thin film and non-thin film color measurement and considerations will be compared. At the end of the tutorial, you will have a working knowledge of the most commonly us ed color measurement systems, factors that affect color perception, and an understanding of color measuring instruments and geometries.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Light sources and their effects
  • Spectral reflectance/transmittance
  • Observer effects
  • Tristimulus color theory
  • Color coordinate systems
  • Color in thin film products
  • Surface finish (specular versus diffuse) effects
  • Instrumentation vs visual color evaluation
  • Color control standards
  • Color tolerancing methods

The tutorial fee includes the text, Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of Color Technology, 3rd Edition, Roy S. Burns (John Wiley & Sons, 2000).

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Greg Caskey, Grand Valley State University


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


M-102 Introduction to Ellipsometry (half-day)

Ellipsometry is an important characterization technique for optical coatings. This tutorial will build an understanding of ellipsometry fundamentals. We start with basic theory behind optical measurements and discuss how ellipsometry extracts thin film properties such as single and multi-layer film thickness, complex refractive index, porosity, conductivity, and composition. A wide range of ellipsometry applications will be surveyed, with emphasis toward optical coatings.

The level of this tutorial is suitable for those new to the field of optical characterization but also contains worth-while information for current ellipsometry users. It will benefit anyone interested in exploring the potential of ellipsometry measurements.

Topical Outline:
  • Principles of ellipsometry
  • Optical constants and light-matter interaction
  • Using Ellipsometry to measure material properties
    • Film thickness, complex refractive index, …
  • Survey of applications:
    • What can Ellipsometry measure?
    • Ex-situ, in-situ, and in-line examples.

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: James N. Hilfiker, J.A. Woollam Co. Inc.


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-102 Introduction to Evaporation and Sputtering (half-day or full-day)

This is an introductory tutorial for people who would like to become familiar with the principles of evaporation and sputtering. The
basic physical and chemical processes that occur at the source and the factors that control the film properties will be described for both techniques. Typical applications will be discussed and used to contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Evaporation
    Vapor pressures and deposition rates
    Evaporation sources
    The control of film composition, structure, and uniformity
    Typical applications and scale-up issues
  • Sputtering
    Basic description of plasmas
    Physical sputtering and target effects
    Magnetron sputtering
    rf sputtering and reactive sputtering of insulators
    The control of film properties
    Typical applications and scale-up issues

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: David Glocker, Isoflux


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-103 An Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processes

This course is suitable for all seeking an introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes and includes detailed descriptions of the hardware, systems, theory, and experimental details related to evaporation, sputtering, arc deposition, laser ablation, etc. This course also includes an introduction to the vacuum technology as relevant to PVD. Thus, it includes an introduction to vacuum science, pumps, vacuum measurement and control instruments, plasma and plasma characterization, etc. This course does not have any pre-requisite but some previous experience with any deposition technology or equipment is helpful.


Physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes are atomistic deposition processes in which material vaporized from a source is transported in the form of a vapor through a vacuum or low-pressure gaseous environment to the substrate, where it condenses and film growth takes place. PVD processes can be used to deposit films of compound materials by the reaction of depositing material with the ambient gas environment or with a co-deposited material. This tutorial will discuss and compare the basic PVD techniques including vacuum evaporation, sputter deposition, arc vapor deposition, pulsed laser deposition, ion beam sputtering and ion plating. Vacuum evaporation uses thermal vaporization as a source of depositing atoms; sputter deposition uses physical sputtering as the vaporizing source; arc vapor deposition uses a high-current, low-voltage arc for vaporization; and ion plating uses concurrent or periodic energetic particle bombardment to modify the film growth. The parameters used for each technique will be discussed along with their advantages, disadvantages, and applications. This is an entry-level tutorial to acquaint the students with various PVD processes used for “surface engineering.”


The day-long tutorial will be conducted in two sessions with the first session primarily dedicated to vacuum technology and instrumentation and the second session focusing on individual PVD processes.

After the completion of this tutorial, the participant will have acquired:
a. Working knowledge of a vacuum system, as pertinent to PVD processes.
b. Understanding of the technology that creates and measures vacuum.
c. Understanding of the various processes that lead to the formation of vapors
d. Understanding of the growth of thin films
e. Understanding of the surfaces involved in thin film growth and how to prepare these surfaces for a successful deposition run.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction: deposition environments (vacuum and plasma), film formation, film structures, reactive deposition, factors affecting film properties
  • Vacuum evaporation and vaporization, evaporation and sublimation, deposition chambers, vaporization sources (resistive and e-beam), evaporation materials, fixture design, process parameters, monitoring and control, advantages and disadvantages, applications
  • Sputter deposition and physical sputtering, plasmas (dc, rf, magnetron, and pulsed dc), sputtering target configurations, reactive sputter deposition, sputtering materials, process parameters, monitoring and control, advantages and disadvantages, applications
  • Arc vapor deposition and vacuum and plasma arcs, properties of arcs, generation and “steering” of arcs, arc sources, reactive arc deposition, process parameters, monitoring and control, advantages and disadvantages, applications
  • Ion plating and bombardment effects, bombardment configurations, reactive ion plating, ion plating vaporization sources and evaporation, sputtering and arc process parameters, monitoring and control, advantages and disadvantages, applications
  • Ion beam sputtering – role of ions in the overall PVD processes, ion generation and use specifically in the ion beam systems, process geometries and systems.
  • Laser ablation – Advantages and disadvantages of using a laser system for ablation and subsequent deposition of materials, process variables, system geometry.
  • PVD deposition systems and configurations (batch, load-lock, and in-line), pumping options
     

The tutorial fee includes the text, Handbook of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processing, 2nd edition, Donald M. Mattox (Elsevier Publishing, 2010).

 

Instructor: S. Ismat Shah, University of Delaware


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-104 An Introduction to Optical Coatings

A one-day introduction to optical coatings and their design, manufacture, and behavior is taught at a fundamental level. A knowledge of basic principles is the key to solving even complex and involved problems. Why are metals better for some coatings than dielectrics? How many layers are needed for high reflectance? How can adhesive tape stick better than an optical coating even though it has a poorer adhesive force? Why do coating properties drift after manufacture? Why is it difficult to find high-index materials for the ultraviolet? Why does coating performance vary with angle of incidence? The material covered in this tutorial should make answers to these and similar questions immediately clear.

 

The level of the tutorial is suitable for those new to the field, those who want a quick refresher, or those with experience who would like to fit it into an ordered framework. Advanced mathematics is definitely not required.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction, including fundamentals of light
  • Optics of thin film materials
  • Coating design basics
  • Manufacture
  • Microstructure
  • Coating performance, properties and behavior

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: H. Angus Macleod, Thin Film Center, Inc.


This course is currently available via:
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C-203 Sputter Deposition (two – day course)

This tutorial covers fundamental mechanisms associated with generation of glow discharges, sputtering, and energetics of target and substrate processes. Operation and system design will be discussed for dc, rf, magnetron (both magnetically balanced and unbalanced), pulsed dc, and ion beam sputtering. The advantages and disadvantages of these different modes of operation will be examined from the point of view of controlling film properties. Emphasis is placed on developing a sufficient understanding of sputter deposition to provide direction in designing new processes. Present and future trends in sputter deposition also will be addressed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Processes controlling film growth and properties
  • The role of energetic particles in controllably modifying these processes
  • Target sputtering effects
  • Nature and energy of sputtered atoms
  • Diode, triode, magnetron, and ion beam systems
  • dc, HIPIMS, pulsed dc, mid-frequency ac, and rf power for targets and substrates
  • Reactive sputtering of conducting and dielectric layers
  • Alloy sputtering

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-204 Basics of Vacuum Web Coating

This tutorial is intended for roll coater machine operators, maintenance personnel, technicians, engineers, scientists, supervisors, and others who would benefit from an introduction to issues related to roll-to-roll vacuum coating onto polymer substrates. This tutorial will emphasize practical aspects of the topics, and the treatment will be descriptive with little mathematics used. The tutorial focuses strongly on coatings made by resistance evaporation but touches on e-beam and induction evaporation and sputter coating. If your primary interest is sputtering onto webs, please see our other offering, “Sputter Deposition onto Flexible Substrates” (C-211).

 

Topical Outline:
  • Markets for coated web products
  • Vacuum technology for web coating
  • Substrate characteristics
  • Web handling and web winding systems
  • Coating techniques and web cooling issues
  • Process and product monitoring methods
  • System maintenance issues
  • Sources of information about web coating

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Donald J. McClure, Acuity Consulting and Training


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-205 Introduction to Optical Coating Design NEW!

Optical interference coatings are essential and enabling components in sensors, display devices, biomedical instrumentation, aerospace systems, and numerous other applications. It is hard to think of an optical instrument or system that does not benefit from their use and many systems would simply not be possible without them. This one-day course provides an introduction to optical coatings and essential design methods.

The course begins with some relevant fundamentals of optics and important properties of optical materials. The basic principles of interference coatings are described and useful insight is gained through the use of simple formulas and diagrams. These tools are applied to understanding the most important and exemplary design types, such as antireflection coatings, edge filters, narrowband filters, and high reflecting coatings. The combination of simpler design types to create more complex functionalities and the use of computer-optimization to improve on the performance of simpler “starting designs” are considered.

The level of the course is geared towards engineers and scientists who are new to the field and need to understand optical coatings and design fundamentals. It is also a suitable course for technical managers, technicians, and experienced practitioners seeking a brush-up. An advanced background in mathematics or physics is not required.

Topical Outline:

• Introduction to light and optical materials
• Survey of optical coatings
• Optics of interfaces and interference fundamentals
• Graphical tools for understanding and designing coatings
• Antireflection coatings
• Quarterwave stacks and all-dielectric reflecting coatings
• Narrowband filters, wideband filters, and edge filters
• Coatings incorporating metal layers
• Coatings at oblique angles of incidence
• Design synthesis and optimization

Instructor: Robert Sargent, Viavi Solutions


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-207 Evaporation as a Deposition Process

Evaporation is a technology used widely to produce thin films in vacuum. The tutorial describes the basics of evaporation and its utilization in various technological processes. The tutorial provides the conceptional basis for a wide range of evaporation techniques. It is designed to meet the needs of both a newcomer to the field and the experienced professional. Experienced scientists and engineers will have an opportunity to broaden their view of this field and deepen their understanding of evaporation processes.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Thin film deposition in vacuum
  • Evaporation mechanism—Thermodynamic of evaporation, evaporation rate, vapor pressure of elements, evaporation of compounds, evaporation of alloys
  • Film thickness uniformity and purity—Deposition geometry, film thickness uniformity, conformal coverage, film purity, deposition rate monitoring and process control
  • Evaporation sources—General considerations, resistance heated sources, sublimation sources, induction heated sources, electron beam heated sources, arc evaporation, laser ablation
  • Reactive evaporation—Reactive and activated reactive evaporation
  • Ion-assisted evaporation—Ion plating, enhanced ion plating, plasma-assisted deposition, ion-beam-assisted deposition
  • Microstructure of evaporated thin films—Film growth mechanisms, structural zones, ion-assisted growth
  • Deposition systems for thin film deposition by evaporation—Major parts of the system, web coatings systems, vacuum batch systems
  • When should we use evaporation as a deposition process

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Abe Belkind, Abe Belkind and Associates


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-208 Sputter Deposition in Manufacturing

This tutorial emphasizes issues of practical importance to those using sputtering as a manufacturing process. It is intended for engineers, scientists, and technicians who would like an understanding of the factors that influence product throughput, coating quality, and process robustness and reliability. The primary focus will be on the use of planar magnetrons of various shapes, but other sources will be covered as well. The relationships between the sputtering conditions and important film properties—such as microstructure, composition, stress, adhesion and the resulting mechanical, electrical, and optical characteristics—will be discussed. New developments that are finding their way into practical applications also will be highlighted. No prior formal training in sputtering is required to appreciate the tutorial content.

 

Topical Outline:
  • A Brief introduction to basic vacuum technology
  • Sputtering plasmas and the nature of the sputtering process
  • Estimating deposition rates and rate limiting factors
  • Cathode geometries and associated film thickness profiles
  • Film composition and compositional uniformity
  • Film nucleation and growth
  • Effects of substrate temperature and energetic particle bombardment
  • Biased sputtering and the use of unbalanced magnetrons
  • Sources of substrate heating
  • rf sputtering of dielectrics from insulating targets
  • The dc, pulsed dc, and ac reactive sputtering of dielectrics
  • Process control methods for reactive sputtering
  • Arcing, disappearing anodes, and other process stability issues
  • Ion beam sputtering
  • High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering (HPPMS or HIPIMS)

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: David Glocker, Isoflux


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-209 Material Science Aspects of Plasma Processing (half-day)

Numerous plasma processes are used to either produce or modify inorganic and organic thin film coatings. Among the more commonly used approaches are physical and reactive sputtering, plasma chemical vapor deposition, ion plating, and surface modification. Within these process categories there exist several plasma modes operating in different power, frequency, and gas throughput regimes and in a variety of plasma apparatus configurations. It is the intent of this tutorial to introduce the student to the basic plasma features that all the above-mentioned process variations have in common, and only then bring out the ways in which they differ in kind or degree. Special attention will be given to the importance and methods of control of key unique plasma species and their energetic state, their subsequent impact on the coating growth processes, and ultimate film composition and microstructure, as well as the consequences on a variety of functional properties.

 

Topical Outline:
  • General Plasma Basics—Description of collision processes in the gas phase as well as at various plasma/surface interfaces and their impact on coating composition and microstructure and functional properties.
  • Prototype examples:

     

    • Sputtering of metals, alloys, and compounds in inert gases and reactive gases
    • Plasma polymerization leading to a variety of polymer coatings, including a discussion of the role of reactive ion etching (RIE) and sputtering at various plasma/surface interfaces
    • Role of polymer deposition in semiconductor micro-feature processing
    • Plasma synthesis and physical properties of inorganic/organic polymer composite thin films made up of granular nanoparticle dispersions and examples of applications
    • Surface structure modification of pre-existing organic coatings, depending on type and energetics of incident plasma particles

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Eric Kay, Consultant, IBM Emeritus


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-210 Introduction to Plasma Processing Technology (half day)

The goal of the tutorial is to show the link and provide understanding of relations between coating application, coating (or modified surface) properties, selection criteria on process characteristics, selection criteria on plasma parameters, and method design. It is possible to predict how the process parameters will be reflected in the coating and in the opposite direction, requirements on the coating properties can imply how the process should be designed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Plasma-assisted technologies, general attributes
  • Useful criteria, basic relations and limits for plasma, classification of plasmas
  • Generation of gas discharge plasma, plasma diagnostics
  • Generation of vapor species, transport through medium, diffusion, condensation at the surface
  • Consequences of the deposition process on film properties
  • Fundamentals of radical and ion-assisted plasma chemistry
  • Homogeneous and heterogeneous plasma-assisted reaction in deposition of films
  • Examples of novel plasma processes
  • Limits and new trends
  • Hybrid plasma processes
Instructor: Hana Baránková, Professor, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University
Instructor: Ladislav Bárdos, Professor, Uppsala University - Sweden


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-211 Sputter Deposition onto Flexible Substrates

This tutorial is intended for engineers, scientists, and others who are interested in sputter deposition onto polymer substrates in a roll-to-roll format. This tutorial will emphasize practical aspects of the topics, and the treatment will be descriptive with little mathematics used. There will be time dedicated to problem solving; bring your questions and problems and leave with new solutions and/or new directions.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Markets for sputter-coated web products
  • Vacuum technology for sputter web coating
  • Substrate characteristics
  • Web handling, web winding, and web cooling issues
  • The sputter coating process
  • Process and product monitoring methods
  • Current topics in sputter web coating

Additionally, the notes provide extensive information and references to sputtering (written at several levels) and a comprehensive bibliography on sputter web coating.

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Donald J. McClure, Acuity Consulting and Training


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-212 Troubleshooting for Thin Film Deposition Processes

The tutorial is designed for process engineers and technicians, quality control personnel, thin film designers, and maintenance staff.

Vacuum deposited thin films are used for optical coatings, electrically-conductive coatings, semiconductor wafer fabrication, and a wide variety of other uses. They may be deposited on glass, plastic, semiconductors, and other materials. Usually, a vacuum deposition process produces durable, adherant films of good quality. But what do you do when things go wrong? Not all films can be deposited on all substrate materials. Sometimes films peel off or crack. Other times they are cloudy, absorbing, scattering, or have other unacceptable properties. 

This tutorial will teach you about techniques and tools that can be used to identify the source of the problems, correct the process, and get back into production. It will also help in learning how to develop new processes and products.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of thin films
  • Process parameters that affect film properties
  • Gauge and instrument calibration
  • Properties of substrate surfaces
  • Measurement of film stress
  • Detection of contamination
  • Introduction to surface analysis techniques (Auger, ESCA, SIMS, FTIR)
  • Substrate preparation and cleaning

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Gary S. Ash, President, Castle Brook Corporation


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-213 Introduction to Smart Materials

This tutorial will focus on the basic principles and mechanisms of smart materials and structures, and provide a spring board for further study. Smart materials and systems are now being used in virtually all areas of technology, and in many high and low-tech applications and products, and have thousands of applications in today’s world. In the context of this tutorial "smart material" is a general term for a broad category of multifunctional materials having a specific property (optical, mechanical, electronic, etc.) that can sense the environment and be controllably modified. They are used to color and control the transmission of windows, precisely position moving parts in machinery and aircraft, sense motion and changes in locations of structures, change the shape of structures (including aircraft wings and nose cones), monitor corrosion and stress in materials and structures, and control many biological functions. Appliances as simple as toasters use smart materials to control the darkness of toast. Many of these materials and structures emulate biological systems that can adapt to changes in their environment, and development of these materials involves combining several technological disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, solid state physics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and robotics. The tutorial will also address how smart materials rely on molecular and atomic engineering of materials in such a way that the functionality of the material in an integral part of the microstructure itself.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Definition of smart materials
  • Brief history of smart materials
  • Smart materials versus smart structures
  • Range of applications
  • Types of materials
  • Mechanisms
  • How functionality of materials is increased
  • Smart optical materials
  • Piezoelectric materials, actuators, transducers
  • Smart magnetic materials
  • Shape memory materials
  • Introduction of smart biological materials
  • Engineering smart materials
  • Looking into the crystal ball: organics and biological systems rule

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Peter Martin, Columbia Basin Thin Film Solutions LLC


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-214 Pulsed Plasma Processing

This tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians, and others interested in using pulsed plasma equipment. Basic understanding or experience with plasmas is desirable but not required. The tutorial has some emphasis on pulsed sputtering equipment but the scope is much wider. The tutorial starts with a brief introduction to plasma and sheath physics in general, as it is relevant for coatings and films. A central part is the physics and engineering aspects of pulses plasmas, pulsed sheaths, and pulsed substrate bias. We move on to see what kind of effects one can obtain by using pulsed plasma systems. Such effects include the increase of the degree of ionization, suppression of arcing on targets and substrates, interface tailoring, and control of film stress and adhesion. Examples of applications are given, including when using the most extreme systems such as high power pulsed sputtering and pulsed arcs.

Topical Outline:

• Plasmas - An Introduction
• Sheaths
• Discharges
• Pulsed Discharges
• Dimensionless Parameters
• Pulsed Sheaths: Collisionless Model
• Pulsed Sheaths: Improvements to the Collisionless Model
• Pulsed Power Supplies
• Pulsed High-Voltage Substrate Bias
• Pulsed Arcs and Plasma Immersion Processing
• Pulsed Sputtering
• High-Power Pulsed Sputtering
• Pulsed Energetic Condensation and Control of Film Stress

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: André Anders, Plasma Applications Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-215 Vacuum Coatings and Plasma Processing for Biomedical Applications

This course is essentially introductory in its content, with appropriate balance of some advanced, state-of-the-art content. It is aimed at researchers and technologists from both industry and academia who are interested in getting familiar and/or involved with the current and potential applications of thin-film coatings (vacuum coatings) for biomedical applications. The course is motivated by the versatility and robustness of vacuum deposition and plasma processes and their application potential for the rapidly growing biomedical sector. The course will start with justifying and rationalizing the need and use of vacuum coatings and plasma processes for biomedical applications. After making the so called Thin-is-In case, a range of current and potential applications of vacuum coatings and plasma processing in biomedical engineering will be presented and discussed in the form of case studies, including value-adding to existing products such as bone implants and screws and tissue-engineering scaffolds. This will be followed by discussing the relevance of plasma processing for the emerging fields of plasma-medicine, nano-medicine, and tissue engineering. Some future research studies aimed at generating key fundamental and practical outcomes will be discussed for thought provoking and possible collaboration.

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction: Vacuum coatings and plasma processing for biomedical applications - making the case for Thin-is-In!
  • Motivation and Potential: Versatility and robustness of vacuum deposition and plasma processes and their application potential for the biomedical sector. Relevance of plasma processing for the emerging fields of plasma-medicine, nano-medicine, and tissue engineering
  • Case studies: Some key results and discussion on a range of case studies where vacuum coatings and plasma processing have been demonstrated to lead to new technologies and add value to the existing ones
  • Future ideas and challenges: Some thought-provoking ideas for generating key fundamental and practical outcomes

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Sunil Kumar, CoatingsMantra Science and Technology Consulting - Adelaide, Australia


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-216 Practical Design of Optical Thin Films

The course is intended to be valuable to new coating engineers, scientists, technicians, and technical managers as well as seasoned thin film scientists who are involved in design, development, and production of optical thin films. Basic principles are laid out from the beginning for those new to the field, but the evolution of the topics then moves into material and techniques useful to even the more experienced practitioners. No extensive background in mathematics or physics is required; extensive graphical illustrations are used. This course deals with optical thin film coating design. It is a companion to, but not a requirement for, the course on optical thin film coating production on the following day with another book by the author. Advanced optical thin films are being used increasingly in communications, optical systems, and light control and collection applications. The sophistication of the optical coating industry is advancing rapidly to meet ever increasing demands for performance and production capability. New viewpoints, equipment, and processes are available to support advanced capability and efficiency. Objectives of this course include: to provide increased knowledge and understanding of the many practical aspects of optical coating design, to discuss the techniques and principles discussed, and to elucidate techniques and processes that are commonly successful in meeting optical coating needs.

Topical Outline:

• Firmly grasp, visualize, and use optical thin film design principles.
• Use graphical methods in thin film design.
• Estimate what can be achieved before starting a design.
• Obtaining good indexes from processes before final designs by good measurement techniques and avoiding pitfalls.
• Understand Fourier thin film synthesis and compare rugate and discrete layer designs.
• Solve practical coating design problems.

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, Practical Design of Optical Thin Films, 4th edition, Ronald R. Willey (Willey Optical, Consultants, 2014) [printed by Lulu.com Press]

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Ronald R. Willey, Consultant, Willey Optical


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-217 Practical Production of Optical Thin Films

The course is intended to be valuable to new coating engineers, scientists, technicians, and technical managers as well as seasoned thin film scientists who are involved in design, development, and production of optical thin films. Basic principles are laid out from the beginning for those new to the field, but the evolution of the topics then moves into material and techniques useful to even the more experienced practitioners. No extensive background in mathematics or physics is required.

This course deals with optical thin film coating production. Advanced optical thin films are being used increasingly in communications, optical systems, and light control and collection applications. The sophistication of the optical coating industry is advancing rapidly to meet ever increasing demands for performance and production capability. New viewpoints, equipment, and processes are available to support advanced capability and efficiency. Objectives of this course include: to provide increased knowledge and understanding of the many practical aspects of optical coating production, to discuss the techniques and principles discussed, and to elucidate techniques and processes that are commonly successful in meeting optical coating needs.

Topical Outline:

• Select appropriate optical coating equipment to support the needed processes.
• Be aware of the importance of pumping effects and measurement accuracy and how to avoid pitfalls.
• Be familiar with the properties and process know-how for common optical coating materials.
• Further understand the use of energetic processes such as sputtering, plasma, and ion assist.
• Understand various monitoring and control strategies and their advantages and limitations.

Attendees in this tutorial receive the text, Practical Production of Optical Thin Films, 3rd edition, Ronald R. Willey (Willey Optical, Consultants, 2015) [printed by Lulu.com Press].
 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Ronald R. Willey, Consultant, Willey Optical


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-304 ITO and Other Transparent Conductive Coatings: Fundamentals, Deposition, Properties, and Applications

This tutorial is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians, and others, interested in understanding the deposition and properties of transparent conductive coatings (TCCs). The major topic of the tutorial is indium tin oxide, ITO. Deposition by dc magnetron sputtering is emphasized although all common deposition processes are described. Specific examples of the ITO properties achieved with evaporation, reactive and ceramic target sputtering deposition processes are shown. Post-deposition processing also is discussed. A methodology is described for developing an ITO (or any TCC) deposition process in your own equipment. Typical ITO properties are compared with those achieved by optically enhanced metals TCC (alternative TCO to ITO are mentioned but not discussed in detail – see C-321). The selection and design of a TCC to meet the requirements of a particular application are presented. Some knowledge of basic thin film coatings and interference optics is assumed, although key basics will be reviewed. The tutorial will briefly cover the basic physics and fundamentals of conductivity. A prior introductory solid state physics tutorial would be helpful but is not required. Time will be available for questions concerning your process problems.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Basic physics of transparent conductive coatings (TCCs)
  • Major deposition methods for TCCs
  • Control of TCC Film Properties
  • Selection of deposition method and process conditions
  • TCC performance in applications
  • Manufacturing issues
  • Optional topics

     

    — Thin film optics

    — Metal Nitride TCC

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Clark Bright, Bright Thin Film Solutions, LLC (retired 3M)


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-306 Non-Conventional Plasma Sources and Methods in Processing Technology (half day or full day) NEW!

This tutorial is a new edition of a well-established annual tutorial started in 1997. It is intended for anyone using or planning to use plasma processing technology, including cold atmospheric plasma sources and applications. Extensive applications of plasma processing are accompanied by an intense development of different new plasma sources and methods (e.g., afterglow and downstream plasmas, pulsed plasmas, inductively coupled plasmas and helicons, dc and rf hollow cathode plasmas, atmospheric plasmas, etc.). The tutorial covers both the explanation of basic physical and technical principles of conventional and non-conventional systems and typical examples of their applications. This is very important not only for adopting new plasma technologies and easier orientation in a new market, but also for better understanding of conventional commercialized systems.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Gas discharge plasma - definition, characterization and generation principles.
  • Fundamentals of plasma processing, conventional plasma sources and systems.
  • Decaying plasmas and afterglows, time and space resolved afterglows, pulsed plasmas, hybrid plasma systems and processing.
  • Microwave plasmas, ECR plasma, surfatron and surfaguide afterglows for PCVD of films.
  • Novel radio frequency (rf) plasma systems, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicons.
  • Hollow cathode plasma sources (principles and basic applications), dc- and rf-generated hollow cathodes, linear hollow cathodes for large area processing.
  • Classification of arcs, arc evaporation of films from rf hollow cathodes, vacuum arcs, metastable-assisted regimes in hollow cathodes.
  • High density plasma sputtering.
  • Magnets-in-motion concept in plasma sources, linear magnetized hollow cathodes.
  • Cold atmospheric and subatmospheric plasma sources, corona and dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), microwave atmospheric plasma, fused hollow cathode discharge.
  • Advantages and limits of the atmospheric plasma sources and applications.
Instructor: Hana Baránková, Professor, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University
Instructor: Ladislav Bárdos, Professor, Uppsala University - Sweden


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-307 Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition

This tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians, and others interested in understanding deposition equipment, the deposition process, and film properties of cathodic arc deposition. The tutorial covers the basic physics and fundamental science of cathodic vacuum arc discharges, proper equipment design, and the particulars of arc coatings applications. Cathodic arc plasma parameters and their consequences for film properties are discussed. Cathodic arc deposition equipment is described and compared to other coatings equipment such as sputter and evaporation systems. The properties of cathodic arc-deposited coatings are reviewed and compared to coatings obtained by other deposition methods. Industrial aspects are discussed with emphasis on industrial applications and production processing. New fields of application and emerging cathodic arc applications are mentioned. Time will be available for questions concerning the applicability of cathodic arc films to specific problems such as the design and operation of cathodic arc deposition systems.

 

Topical Outline:
  • The cathodic arc discharge
    — Physics of cathodic arc discharge
    — Explosive emission and fractal nature of cathode spot
    — triggering
    — macroparticle generation
    — steered arcs
    — plasma guiding in filters
  • Vacuum arc deposition equipment
    — Historical overview
    — Arc source integration
    — Macroparticle filters
    — System design
  • Deposition of films
    — Film growth mechanisms
    — energetic condensation
    — Nitrides, Oxides, ta-C (DLC)
  • Industrial aspects
    — Substrate cleaning, fixturing, inspection
    — Emerging applications
Instructor: Gary Vergason, Vergason Technology, Inc.
Instructor: André Anders, Plasma Applications Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-308 Tribological Coatings

This tutorial is intended for design engineers, materials scientists, and coatings developers who have a need to specify and develop coatings for tribological applications (i.e., those in which wear must be reduced or prevented and/or friction minimized). The coatings also may need to have corrosion-resistant properties to operate in arduous conditions. The tutorial begins with a description of the mechanics of wear and discusses the problems of selecting coatings for optimal tribological performance. An overview of the main processes for producing tribological coatings is given, emphasizing vacuum deposition methods. Tribological test methods also are over-viewed, including tests for adhesion and mechanical properties. Coatings developed for enhanced tribological properties are described, and information is provided on some applications for these coatings.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Wear mechanisms and theories (adhesion, abrasion, erosion, fatigue, corrosion, etc.)
  • Tribological and mechanical test methods (e.g., pin on disc, abrasive wheel, scratch adhesion, microhardness, etc.)
  • Coating processes and selection
  • Benefits of ceramic coatings by PVD methods
  • Information on tribological coatings (e.g., metal nitrides, carbides, oxides, superlattices, multilayers, nanocomposites, DLC, etc., plus hybrid and duplex processes)
  • Applications information (e.g., metal cutting and forming, molding, bearings, pumps, auto parts, etc.)

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Allan Matthews, The University of Manchester - United Kingdom
Instructor: Bill Sproul, Reactive Sputtering, Inc. and Gencoa Ltd.


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-309 Cathodic Arc Deposition (half day)

Cathodic arc deposition is a high rate deposition process well established for some applications such as hard, protective, and decorative coatings. The rather unusual properties of cathodic arc plasmas are discussed, including their consequences for film properties such as high film density and stress. Cathodic arc deposition is put in context of other PVD coating techniques such as sputter and evaporation. Of special concern is the infamous macroparticle problem, which can be addressed with filters other strategies. This course is intended for engineers, technicians, and students interested in understanding the underlying physics of cathodic arc plasmas and energetic film growth processes, and practical aspects of deposition from the vapor/plasma phase.

Topical Outline:

• Motivation: Why would one use cathodic arcs for coatings?
• Some plasma basics: plasma versus sheath
• The physics of cathodic arc discharge
   - Explosive electron emission and fractal nature of cathode spot
   - spot types
   - plasma properties
   - macroparticle generation
• Plasma Guiding and Filtered Arcs
• Deposition of films
  - Film growth mechanisms
  - Energetic condensation / biasing
  -Nitrides, Oxides incl. TCOs, ta-C (DLC)
• Deposition equipment
   -DC versus pulsed
   -arc triggering
   -anodes
   -power supplies
   -filter integration
   -system integration

Instructor: André Anders, Plasma Applications Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-310 Plasma Immersion Techniques for Surface Engineering

Plasma immersion techniques are characterized by immersing the substrate in a plasma and applying (usually pulsed) bias voltage to the substrate or substrate holder such as to modify the surface prior to deposition and tuning film properties during deposition. Ion Plating, introduced decades ago by Mattox, can be considered as one of the immersion techniques. Energetic deposition of thin films and coatings commonly leads to well-adherent and dense films. Film properties can be quite different compared to properties of films obtained by evaporation or sputtering. Film stress is of concern and methods to handle it are also discussed. This tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians and others interested in understanding, using, and applying plasma immersion deposition techniques. Only basic knowledge of physics and materials science is required. The tutorial is structured in three parts: Fundamentals, Technology, and Applications, and thus intended to be useful for participants at different levels.

Topical Outline:

 

Part I: Fundamentals

 

•  Introduction to Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation & Deposition (PIII&D)

  • What is PIII&D?
  • Historic roots and development
  • Comparison with related techniques

•  Plasmas and Plasma Sheaths

  • What is Plasma?
  • What is a plasma sheath?
  • Driven and undriven sheaths

•  Fundamentals of Surface Treatment by Ion Beams and Plasmas

  • Ion Implantation
  • Thin Film Deposition

•  The “Family” of PIII&D techniques

  • Principles of PIII&D
  • Making sense of the “alphabet soup”:
    • PSII
    • PIII,
    • PIID,
    • PIIP,
    • MePIIID,…

•  Analyzing and Testing PIII&D Modified Surfaces

  • Retained Ion Dose, Implantation Profile
  • Precipitation, Phase Formation
  • Films: Composition, Thickness, Texture
  • Tests: Corrosion, Wear, Adhesion, Stress

Part II: Technology

 

•  Building a PIII&D System

  • Process Chamber
  • Fixtures, Shields
  • Controls

•  Plasma Production

  • Gas Discharges:
    • DC: glow discharge, thermionic arc, hollow-cathode
    • RF,
    • m-wave, ECR, DECR
    • Metal Plasmas:
      • ionized sputtering,
      • laser ablation
      • cathodic arc

•  Pulse Modulators

    • Why should the substrate bias be pulsed?
    • Pulser concepts
      • “hard” tubes,
      • thyratrons with PFNs,
      • solid state switches
    • Pulse transformers

•  Health and Safety Issues

    • Electrical Safety
    • Radiation and Shielding
    • Chemical Safety

Part III Applications

 

•  Non-Semiconductor Applications

    • diamond-like carbon coatings
    • protective nitride and oxide coatings
    • Management of film stress and adhesion
    • modification of surfaces of plastics
    • Nitriding of steel, aluminum, and Al-alloys

 

•  Semiconductor Applications

    • Shallow junction formation
    • Silicon-on-insulator fabrication
      • SPIMOX (Separation by Plasma Implantation of Oxygen)
      • Micro-cavity engineering
    • Trench doping
    • Metallization and barrier layers

 
Attendees in this couse receive the text, Handbook of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition, Andre Anders (Editor), (John Wiley & Sons, 2000)

Instructor: André Anders, Plasma Applications Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-311 Thin Film Growth and Microstructure Evolution

This tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians, and others involved with the vapor deposition of thin films by sputtering, evaporation, MBE, CVD, GS-MBE, etc., and who need to obtain a better understanding of the effects of operating parameters on the properties of metal, semiconductor, and dielectric films and alloys. The tutorial is concentrated on the development of a detailed atomic-scale understanding of the primary experimental variables and surface reaction paths controlling nucleation/growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during vapor-phase deposition of thin films. The goal is to develop an appreciation of the advantages and disadvantages of competing growth techniques and to learn how to design better and more efficient film growth processes to achieve required properties.

 

Thin-film technology is pervasive in many advanced fields of modern technology including microelectronics, optics, magnetics, hard and corrosion-resistant coatings, micromechanics, etc. Progress in each of these areas depends upon the ability to selectively and controllably deposit thin films (thickness ranging from tens of Ångstroms to micrometers) with specified physical properties. This, in turn, requires control—often at the atomic level—of film microstructure and microchemistry.

 

Essential fundamental aspects, as well as the technology of thin-film nucleation and growth from the vapor phase (evaporation, MBE, sputtering, and CVD) are discussed in detail and highlighted with “real” examples. The tutorial begins with an introduction on substrate surfaces: structure, reconstruction, and adsorption/desorption kinetics. Nucleation processes are treated in detail using insights obtained from both in situ (RHEED, LEED, STM, AES, EELS, etc.) and post-deposition (TEM and AFM) analyses. The primary modes of nucleation include two-dimensional (step flow, layer-by-layer, and two-dimensional multilayer), three-dimensional, and Stranski-Krastanov. The fundamental limits of epitaxy will be discussed.

 

Experimental results and simulations will be used to illustrate processes controlling three-dimensional nucleation kinetics, island coalescence, clustering, secondary nucleation, column formation, preferred orientation, and microstructure evolution. The effects of low-energy ion-irradiation during deposition, as used in sputtering and plasma-CVD, will be discussed with examples.  The Tutorial course concludes with a detailed discussion of the origins, mechanisms, and control strategies, of intrinsic and extrinsic stresses in thin films.

 

Topical Outline:
  • The role of the substrate in mediating growth kinetics
  • The nucleation process
  • Film growth modes
  • Epitaxy
  • The development and control of film stress (strain engineering)
  • Nucleation and growth of strain-mediated self-organized structures
  • Polycrystalline film growth, texture, and microstructure evolution
  • Structure-zone models of film microstructure
  • The role of low-energy ion/surface interactions during film growth
  • The relationship between film growth parameters and film properties

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-312 R2R Metal Strip Coating - PVD Deposition and Applications (half day)

This new SVC Tutorial is explicitly focused on the engineering and production of roll-to-roll metal strip coatings using industry proven, highly productive physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as magnetron sputtering and electron beam (EB) evaporation. The Tutorial will also review the related metrology for in situ thin film process quality management.

Typically, large area thin film coating applications utilize glass substrates for architectural glazing or photovoltaic manufacturing. Mass production for coatings on flexible substrate materials are primarily based on polymer films, which are R2R deposited by similar PVD techniques, for use in display, packaging, or barrier applications.

Based on these widely accepted thin film solutions, this tutorial will highlight industrial vacuum coatings on aluminum, copper, or stainless steel strip for high performance optical layer stacks. The key applications for these coatings are enhanced specular surface reflectors for the lighting industry and solar light absorbing films for solar thermal collectors.

To develop sufficient productivity for such functional PVD coatings on metal strip, this tutorial provides an overview regarding air-to-air manufacturing techniques for R2R handling of heavy weight metal coils at a substrate speed of approximately 20 m/min.

The basic features for thin film deposition using EB evaporation and rotatable magnetron sputtering are explained. These techniques are compared as to their performance for high rate deposition of high and low index oxide coatings as well as for metallization.

Furthermore, the prerequisite cleaning and outgassing of a continuously moving metal surface by applying tailored and efficient recipes for plasma pretreatment are reviewed in detail.

Metrology is important for process monitoring and is the final segment of this comprehensive tutorial. Techniques and features for in situ measurement of reflectance, spectroscopic ellipsometry to evaluate refractive index n, extinction coefficient k, film thickness, and XRF measurements are reviewed.

This half day tutorial is targeted to R&D personal, operators, and managers who are interested in the industrial scale, continuous operation of PVD coatings on metal strip.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Johannes Strümpfel, VON ARDENNE Anlagentechnik GmbH - Germany
Instructor: Holger Pröhl, VON ARDENNE - Dresden, Germany


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-313 Practical Aspects of Permeation Measurement: From Polymer Films to Ultra-high Barriers (half-day)

More and more applications based on web-coating require detailed permeation characteristics. Examples are flexible electronics (displays, solar cells, batteries etc.) and vacuum insulating panels. This tutorial is designed for those who wish to learn about methods to measure the rate of permeation of gases and vapors through films. The tutorial will provide an understanding of basic permeation processes through polymers and barrier layers, and basic principles and apparatus used to measure the permeability of polymers and barrier films. We will introduce chemical sensors used in permeation measurements and discuss recent developments based on nanotechnology.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Basic permeation processes for gases and vapors through polymers and barrier layers for non-reactive and reactive species, barrier materials
  • applications of barrier layers (food packaging, flexible electronics, vacuum insulating panels)
  • ultra-high barrier technologies
  • methods to measure the rate of permeation: different methods (total pressure, coulorimetric method, Ca-test, mass spectrometric method)
  • gas sensors
  • ASTM standards

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Holger Nörenberg, Technolox Ltd. - United Kingdom


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-314 Plasma Modification of Polymer Materials and Plasma Web Treatment

Plasma treatments are used in the web coating and roll conversion industries to tailor polymer surfaces while preserving their bulk properties. This tutorial is intended for engineers, scientists, and technicians who would like to gain a better understanding of the influence of plasma process factors on treatment performance, as well as the practical issues related to process robustness, process speed, and ease of scale-up. While much of the tutorial deals with treatment of polymer webs, the key concepts presented are applicable to polymer surfaces in general and plasma treatment of materials in general.

 

Topical Outline:
  • A basic introduction to plasmas including discussion of species distributions, the structure of glow-discharge plasmas, electrical breakdown of gases, and mechanisms of sustaining a plasma.
  • Discussion of industrial applications of plasmas for polymer surface modification including wettability control & printing, bonding & adhesion, nucleation of films, control of biointeraction with surfaces, and control of gas-film interactions.
  • Description of a variety of plasma treatment technologies and the importance of controlling the industrial treatment environment.
  • The interaction of plasmas with polymer surfaces.
  • The basics of polymer surface analysis along with examples of surface analytical techniques applied to plasma treated polymers including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Also included is discussion of adhesion, wetability, etc.
  • Practical aspects of plasma web treatment including treatment dose, process factors and their roles, practical treatment efficiency, process verification, and process stability issues.
  • Mechanisms of surface modification in the context of a site balance model.

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Jeremy M. Grace, Senior Filter Design Engineer, Semrock, a unit of IDEX Corporation


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-315 Reactive Sputter Deposition

This tutorial covers the fundamental mechanisms and technology of high rate reactive sputter deposition of conducting and insulating thin films. Following a brief introduction to reactive sputtering, including discussion of basic issues, target choices, and system configurations, we examine the effects of reactive gas addition on target surface and glow discharge processes which control film growth rates. Deposition approaches used in reactive sputtering – dc, rf, magnetron, pulsed dc, and ion beam – are discussed and compared. Process control strategies (e.g.: flow, partial pressure, and target voltage, and multi-loop control) and their implementation are described in detail using numerous examples. The advantages and disadvantages of these different modes of operation are examined from the point of view of controlling film properties. Emphasis is placed on developing a sufficient understanding of reactive sputter deposition to provide direction in designing new processes. The effects of energetic particle irradiation (positive and negative ions and fast neutrals) on film properties are also discussed. Present and future trends in reactive sputter deposition are addressed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction to reactive sputter deposition of conducting and insulating thin films
  • Target processes during reactive sputtering
  • Glow discharge volume processes during reactive sputtering
  • Deposition technologies used in reactive sputtering (dc, rf, magnetron, pulsed dc, ion beam)
  • Process control strategies
  • Particle irradiation effects during film growth
  • Film properties
  • Computer-based modeling

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-316 Introduction to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Processes, Chemistries and Applications (half day)

This course is intended for senior technicians, scientists, engineers or graduate students.

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a powerful and enabling thin film deposition technology with a growing range of applications including semiconductors, energy, catalysis, and emerging areas of nanotechnology. ALD fills a unique niche in thin film deposition technology where exceptional control is required for thickness, stoichiometry, and other film properties at an industrially relevant scale. New chemistries specifically designed for ALD are enhancing the repertoire of materials that can be grown, encompassing the whole range from insulating to conductive layers. New chemistries and developments in the area of in situ tools for monitoring ALD growth are also enhancing the properties of films grown with ALD. Although generally limited to relatively thin layers, there is a growing interest to scale ALD to larger size substrates for new and emerging applications, and the field will continue to grow in size and application while demanding new solutions specific to ALD.

This introductory course will cover the essentials of ALD including discussion of practical issues such as reactor operation and in-situ growth monitoring, as well as providing insight into the molecular scale phenomena that dictate the final product. We will also cover new developments in materials and ALD chemistries as well as emerging applications in non-traditional thin film areas. Potential students are encouraged to contact the instructor to highlight their background and specific goals.

Topical Outline:
  • Introduction: basic concepts & fundamentals of Atomic Layer Deposition, ideal and non-ideal aspects.
  • Overview of materials and chemistries for ALD
  • Specific examples & case studies
  • ALD reactor designs & operation
  • In situ analytical tools for ALD
  • Non-traditional applications and emerging areas of ALD

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Brian Willis, Professor, University of Connecticut - Storrs, CT


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-317 The Practice of Reactive Sputtering

This tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians, materials scientists, and coating developers, who have a desire and need to understand how the reactive sputter deposition process really works. The goal of the tutorial is to give the student a thorough understanding of all of the factors that affect the reactive sputtering process in order that the student can apply this knowledge to improve their reactive deposition process and achieve both high deposition rates and excellent film properties.

 

This tutorial covers the basics of reactive sputtering followed by a comparison of the use of flow control versus partial pressure control of the reactive gas. The latter allows operation in the transition region between the metallic and poisoned states of the target, and films can be deposited at much higher rates with excellent properties using partial pressure control compared to flow control of the reactive gas. Along with using partial pressure control, it is important to use the right type of power to assure that there is no arcing during the deposition. Which type of power to use and along with which partial pressure sensor are reviewed. Large area coating presents special challenges for the control of the reactive gas, and the need for multiple gas inlets along the length of a long cathode and sensing in each gas inlet zone are discussed. The requirements for a partial pressure control system along with commercially available controllers are presented. Multiple gas reactive sputtering and reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) are emerging areas that are advancing the state of the art for reactive sputtering. How they work and what factors are important for controlling these two processes are discussed.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Basics of reactive sputtering
  • Flow control versus partial pressure control of the reactive gas
  • Power supplies for reactive sputtering
  • Reactive gas sensors
  • Large area reactive sputtering
  • Control systems for reactive sputtering
  • Multiple gas reactive sputtering
  • Reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Bill Sproul, Reactive Sputtering, Inc. and Gencoa Ltd.


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-318 Nanostructures: Strategies for Self-Organized Growth (half-day)

 (The Materials Science of Small Things)

  • Learn about the primary classical and quantum effects which controllably alter the properties of increasingly small nanostructures.
  • Understand the mechanisms controlling self-assembly and self-organization during nanostructure growth.
  • Learn how to better design nanostructure growth processes.

The study of nanotechnology is pervasive across widespread areas including microelectronics, optics, magnetics, hard and corrosion resistant coatings, mechanics, etc. Progress in each of these fields depends upon the ability to selectively and controllably deposit nanoscale structures with specified physical properties. This, in turn, requires control -- often at the atomic level -- of nanostructure, nanochemistry, and cluster nano-organization.


Deceasing size scales of solid clusters can result in dramatic property changes due to both "classical" effects associated with changes in average bond coordination and, as cluster sizes become of the order of the spatial extent of electron wavefunctions, quantum mechanical effects. The course will start with examples including reduced melting points, higher vapor pressures, increased optical bandgaps, decreased magnetic hysteresis, and enhanced mechanical hardness. Essential fundamental aspects, as well as the technology, of nanostructure formation and growth from the vapor phase will be discussed and highlighted with "real" examples using insights obtained from both in-situ and post-deposition analyses.


Nanostructure case studies include:

  • examples of template, size, and coarsening effects: self-assembled Si/Si(001), Cu/Cu(001),TiN/TiN(001), TiN/TiN(111) nano-clusters,
  • examples of controlled template plus strain effects: self-organized Ge wires on Si(111), Ge wires on Si(187 72 81), Au chains on Si(553), InAs metal wires on GaAs(001), insulated metal wires on Si(111),
  • quantum dot engineering: formation, shape transformations, and ordering in self-organized SiGe/Si(001); InAs/GaAs(001), CdSe/ZnSe(001), PbSe/PbEuSe(111), Ag/Pt(111), and MnN/Cu(001) quantum dots,
  • examples of 3D nanostructures:(Ti,Ce)N/SiO2, TiBx/SiO2, and d-TaN/g-Ta2N/SiO2.

 

Topical Outline:

The course provides an understanding of:

  • the classical and quantum effects controlling the dramatic property changes observed in nanostructures as a function of cluster size and dimension (3D 2D 1D)
  • self-assembly and self-organization during film growth
  • the role of the substrate template and defect structures in mediating growth kinetics
  • the use of film stress to controllably manipulate nanostructure
  • other mechanisms (including surface segregation, surfactant effects, low-energy ion bombardment, cluster coarsening, etc) for controlling nanostructures
  • the design of nanostructures with specified properties.
 
Who Should Attend?

Scientists and engineers involved in deposition, characterization, or manufacturing/marketing of nanostructures and nanostructure deposition equipment.

 

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Joe Greene, Willett Professor of Materials Science and Physics, University of Illinois


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information
On Location Education Program


C-319 Introduction to Energy Conversion Materials and Technology

With the high price of fossil fuels, there is a renewed emphasis on energy conservation and development of alternative energy resources and systems. As a result, there is renewed emphasis on low cost energy conversion materials. Many of these systems were initially developed for space power sources. Fuel cells (including PEM, solid oxide and thin film) convert hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels to electrical power and are being developed as an alternate power source for automobile engines. Thermoelectric power generation systems are being developed to recover energy from industrial and vehicle waste heat sources. Semiconductor photovoltaics have been around with us for a long time and harvests light from the sun and thermophotovoltaics converts photons from heat sources to useable energy. Organic photovoltaics are just starting to achieve respectable efficiencies and can be made over large areas. Thermionics converts electrons from a hot body into electricity. Nuclear reactions (beta decay) are used as the heat source for thermoelectric power generation. Thin film batteries convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Most of these energy conversion systems are utilized by the space program but have experienced recent significant improvements in performance. They are extremely useful in powering remote sensors and surveillance systems.

 

This tutorial will review several energy conversion technologies and how thin film materials are helping to advance these technologies. These new materials are helping to improve conversion efficiencies. Recent development in organic materials will also be presented.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Semiconductor solar cells
  • Thin film solar cells
  • Graztel cells
  • Organic solar cells
  • Transparent solar cells
  • Thermophotovoltaics
  • Solar thermal energy
  • Photocatalytic materials
  • Thermoelectric power generation
  • Thermionic power generation
  • PEM fuel cells
  • Solid oxide fuel cells
  • Thin film fuel cells
  • Thin film Li batteries
  • How MEMS is advancing energy systems
  • Space power systems
  • Remote power systems

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Peter Martin, Columbia Basin Thin Film Solutions LLC


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-320 Diamond Like Carbon Coatings – from Basics to Industrial Realization (half-day)

This tutorial is recommended for engineers and R&D staff members, who are involved in specifying new designs and surface treatments for components and tools. The application of Diamond Like Carbon, often in combination with pre-treatments like plasma nitriding and polishing, allows much improved wear resistance (abrasive, adhesive, fatigue) and to reduction of friction forces. Under the umbrella name of DLC, various classes of coatings have been developed, where each class of coatings has its own deposition technology and coating characteristics.

The industrial applications are presently mainly in components for e.g. automotive, aerospace, general machine building.

Topical Outline:
  • Basics and standardization
    • Classification of different DLC’s
    • DLC’s in comparison to diamond films
    • Structure of hydrogen free and hydrogenated DLC’s
    • Mechanical properties of DLC’s
    • Tribological behaviour of DLC’s
    • Carbon based coating systems
  • Technology and processes
    • PVD processes for deposition of hydrogen free DLC films
    • Plasma assisted CVD processes for preparation of a-C:H and modified a-C:H:X coatings
    • Hybrid processes
    • Duplex processes
    • Sputter deposition of metal containing a-C:H:Me coatings
    • Sputter deposition of metal free a-C:H coatings
    • Improved coating adhesion by interlayer systems
  • Industrial applications
    • Contact modes and wear mechanisms
    • Coating design for specific wear mechanisms
    • Industrial DLC applications
    • Industrial deposition methods
    • Representative industrial examples
    • Near future expectations

 

Instructor: Thomas Schuelke, Fraunhofer USA
Instructor: George Savva, Engineering Manager, Ionbond North America


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-322 Characterization of Thin Films

This course is intended for people with a basic background in thin films who need to understand the broad range of techniques available to characterize films. The course is appropriate for technicians, engineers, and managers who perform or specify characterization work as well as students seeking a broad understanding of the field.

This tutorial examines the broad range of techniques available to characterize thin film materials. We examine the range of properties of interest and how thin film properties may differ from bulk properties. Generic differences between counting and spectroscopic techniques are presented. Available “probes” are identified.

The main emphasis of the tutorial is an overview of a wide range of characterization techniques. We examine imaging techniques such as Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Scanning probe microscopies (STM, AFM …). We also explore techniques, which provide information about structural properties including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Stylus profilometry, Quartz crystal monitors (QCM) and density measurements.

The tutorial examines techniques, which explore chemical properties such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, ESCA), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS). AES is used as a prototype to examine quantitative analysis of spectroscopic data. Characterization techniques for optical properties such as ellipsometry and optical scattering are also considered. Many of these chemical and optical techniques can also provide information about structural properties.

 

Techniques for determining electrical and magnetic properties are also discussed. These include resistance / four point probe, Hall effect, magneto-optical Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance. The emphasis here is on materials characterization as opposed to device characterization.

The tutorial concludes with an examination of techniques used to explore mechanical properties such as stress-curvature measurements, friction testing, micro/nano indentation and adhesion tests.

 

Topical Outline:

Overview of wide range of characterization techniques for thin films including:

  • Mechanical properties (stress, friction, micro/nano indentation, adhesion…)
  • Imaging (microscopies: optical, SEM, TEM, AFM …)
  • Structural properties (XRD, profilometry, QCM …)
  • Chemical properties (AES, EDAX, XPS, SIMS, …)
  • Electrical/magnetic properties (resistance, Hall effect, Kerr effect …)

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Tom Christensen, University of Colorado - Colorado Springs


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-323 High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering

This tutorial is intended for engineers, technicians, students, and others interested in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS). With HIPIMS we mean a pulsed sputtering process where the power density on the sputtering target is greatly enhanced (about two orders of magnitude) over the average power density. Hence, the word “impulse” is adopted to signify a low duty cycle of operation.

 

Some basic understanding or experience with plasmas and materials is desirable but not required. The tutorial starts with a brief introduction to basic plasma and sheath physics. The operation of dc magnetrons is explained to provide the foundation for the understanding of the time-dependent processes in pulsed systems, and especially those of HIPIMS discharges.

 

High power density leads to significant ionization of the sputtered material, enabling effective surface modification via ion etching and ion assistance to film growth. The interface to the substrate can be engineered and the film texture can be influenced using the HIPIMS plasma in combination with an appropriate bias.

 

Topical Outline:
  • HIPIMS - An Introduction
  • Stationary plasmas, sheaths, discharge
  • The dc magnetron processes
  • Ion surface modification: etching and film growth, energetic condensation
  • Pulsed plasmas and sheaths
  • High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: the discharge
  • Plasma characterization and plasma diagnostics
  • Substrate biasing: etching / growth assist
  • Interface engineering by using HIPIMS plasmas
  • Deposition and coatings by HIPIMS
  • Hardware
  • Applications

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Arutiun P. Ehiasarian, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom
Instructor: André Anders, Plasma Applications Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-324 Atmospheric Plasma Technologies (half day)

Atmospheric plasma technologies is a rapidly growing area in plasma-assisted technologies. However, the atmospheric plasma requires a special design of plasma sources to ensure non-equilibrium, i.e. non-thermal plasma in a number of applications in coating and surface treatment. Technologies using the atmospheric pressure plasma sources bring about fast processes, but it is important to be aware of limits given by atmospheric plasma properties and plasma chemical reactions. This introduction tutorial course addresses the most important principles and applications of non-thermal atmospheric plasma.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Cold atmospheric plasma sources - principles, problems to solve
  • Corona and Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD)
  • Atmospheric pressure plasma jets
  • Fused Hollow cathodes
  • Microwave atmospheric plasmas
  • Atmospheric plasma with/in liquids
  • Applications of the atmospheric plasma
  • Advantages and limits of the atmospheric plasma sources
Instructor: Hana Baránková, Professor, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University
Instructor: Ladislav Bárdos, Professor, Uppsala University - Sweden


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-325 Introduction to Nanotechnology: What the Technical and Business Professional Should Know (half-day)

The prefix “nano” is now attached to many products and research areas. Does “nano” really mean anything? Nanotechnology is unique in that it is not limited to one particular industry segment of materials set. Rather, nanoscience leads to new ways of manipulating materials which could potentially revolutionize a wide cross-section of existing technologies, including the thin film industry. If we allow “nano” to become no more than a marketing gimmick, however, the potential for public misunderstanding leading to fear and ill-conceived regulation increases. This tutorial aims to teach what nano is and how we got there. The goal is to equip attendees with enough background information to ask hard questions and lead a rational and broad-based conversation on the risks and rewards of nanotechnology. A technical degree is not required.

 

Topical Outline:
  • Understand what the term “nano” really means, outside of the hype
  • Ask meaningful questions about socially responsible nanotechnology development
  • React appropriately to legislative initiatives concerning the regulation of nano
  • Explore how technological development inevitably leads to nanoscale processing
  • Visualize where future developments in nanotechnology may lead and how they might affect conventional technologies

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Paul Burrows, Consultant,


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-326 Manufacture of Precision Evaporated Coatings (half-day)

 This tutorial provides detailed information on how to establish and improve evaporative coating processes for precision optical coatings.  Design considerations for coating chambers, such as source placement, substrate fixturing, control of film thickness uniformity, and thickness monitors will be discussed.  Trade-offs in the selection of source materials, means of controlling film structure, and the influence on the performance of the coated component will be considered.  Process details will be approached with a focus on practicality; film properties must be measurable and system designs must be practical and cost-effective.  These process concepts are readily implemented in standard evaporation systems, providing significant improvements in existing coating facilities.

Topical Outline:
    Chamber components for an evaporation system
    Deposition monitoring and control
         - Optical monitoring
         - Advanced methods for quartz crystal monitoring
    Thin-film uniformity concepts and calculations
         - Source placement
         - Substrate rotation and fixturing
         - Analysis and selection of system gearing
         - Design of uniformity masks to correct film thickness variations
    Stress in optical coatings
         - Theoretical basis for film stress
         - Measurements of stress in thin films
         - Process design to minimize stresses in optical coatings 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Jim Oliver, Vacuum Innovations, LLC and Univ. of Rochester LLE


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-327 Introduction to Photoactive Materials and Photovoltaics

In addition to traditional semiconductors, photovoltaics technology now encompasses thin films, organic materials, low dimensional materials, nanotubes and biomaterials. This course provides an introduction to the basic principles of photoconductivity and photoactivation, solar cell operation, photovoltaic devices, photocatalytic materials and the wide range of photovoltaic technologies and systems. Principles of photoconductivity and solar cell operation will be presented using basic solid state physics and graphic examples. Specific examples addressed are silicon solar cells, amorphous thin film silicon cells, Gratzel (dye sensitized) cells, organic cells and multijunction cells.  This course will address current PV cell structures and power systems and the factors that are preventing them from achieving theoretical efficiencies. Solar concentrators and industrial PV systems will also be presented.  Finally, future directions will be addressed

 

Topical Outline:

Topical Outline

  • Energy from the sun and heat sources
  • Semiconductor band structure
  • Photoconductivity mechanisms
  • Solar cell parameters
  • Materials
  • Bulk semiconductor cells
  • Thin film solar cells
  • Dye sensitized solar cells
  • Photocatalytic materials
  • Organic solar cells
  • Photovoltaic power systems
  • Solar concentrators
  • Advanced materials and designs
  • Future directions

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Peter Martin, Columbia Basin Thin Film Solutions LLC


This course is currently available via:
Contact SVC for Information


C-328 Properties and Applications of Tribological Coatings (half day or full day)

This tutorial is intended for design engineers, materials scientists, and coatings developers who have a need to specify and develop coatings for tribological applications (i.e., those in which wear must be reduced or prevented and/or friction minimized). The coatings also may need to have corrosion-resistant properties to operate in arduous conditions. The tutorial begins with a description of the mechanics of friction and wear and discusses the problems of selecting coatings for optimal tribological performance. An overview of the main processes for producing tribological coatings is given, emphasizing plasma assisted vacuum deposition methods. Tribological test methods also are overviewed, including tests for adhesion and mechanical properties. Coatings developed for enhanced tribological properties are described, and information is provided on some applications for these coatings.

Topical Outline:

  • Wear mechanisms and theories (adhesion, abrasion, erosion, fatigue, corrosion, etc.)
  • Tribological and mechanical test methods (e.g., pin on disc, abrasive wheel, scratch adhesion, microhardness, etc.)
  • Coating processes and selection
  • Benefits of ceramic coatings by PVD methods
  • Information on tribological coatings (e.g., metal nitrides, carbides, oxides, superlattices, multilayers, nanocomposites, DLC, etc., plus hybrid and duplex processes)
  • Applications information (e.g., metal cutting and forming, molding, bearings, pumps, auto parts, etc.)

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Allan Matthews, The University of Manchester - United Kingdom


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-330 Introduction to Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies (half day)

This course focuses on PV thin film technologies like Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe an the amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells which are nowadays mainly introduced. Starting point is a market overview followed by the basic designs of these solar cell types and their efficiency potentials. Especially the different manufacturing technologies are introduced focusing the different production and process steps of each solar cell type.

Topical Outline:

  • Market situation
  • Cell design of thin film solar cells
  • Research activities
  • Production and process technologies for thin film solar cells

 

 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Volker Sittinger, Senior Scientist, Fraunhofer Institute – Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-332 Zinc Oxide-Based and Other TCO Alternatives to ITO: Materials, Deposition, Properties and Applications

Indium tin oxide, ITO, is the most common of Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO). However, there are concerns about ITO cost, availability and in some cases, performance. This tutorial covers zinc oxide-based alternatives with various dopants including, aluminum (AZO) and gallium (GZO), as well as other TCO alternatives to ITO. The tutorial is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians and others, interested in understanding the materials, deposition, properties and applications of TCO. The effects of dopant material choice and concentration on TCO properties are explored. TCO deposition by common methods, e.g., evaporation and CVD/pyrolysis, are described, although magnetron sputter deposition is emphasized. The influence of the deposition method on the TCO properties is shown including reported performance with Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). Engineering of TCO film properties by controlling deposition process parameters is explained. TCO properties with high temperature processes, e.g., on glass substrates, and low temperature processes, e.g., on plastic substrates, are compared. The instability of ZnO-based and other TCO in high temperature and high humidity environments is discussed, progress reported and future directions suggested. Designing and engineering TCO properties for specific applications is explained and examples presented. (This full-day tutorial is much more in-depth than the previously offered one-half day course (C-321) which surveyed alternative TCO types and achieved performance).

Topical Outline:

• Conductivity in transparent metal oxides
• Performance expectations; Theory and ITO baseline
• ZnO-based materials and dopants
• Performance of TCO grown by major deposition methods
• Control of TCO film properties
• Other TCO hosts and dopants
• Advanced doping techniques
• Environmental performance of ZnO-based and other TCO
• Designing and engineering TCO properties for applications
• Applications examples of TCO

Instructor: Clark Bright, Bright Thin Film Solutions, LLC (retired 3M)


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-333 Practice and Applications of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) (half-day)

This half day tutorial is intended for decision makers, engineers, technician and students interested in equipment availability, applications and process requirements of HIPIMS. Basic understanding or experience with plasma and materials is desirable but not required.

HIPIMS is a highly ionized pulsed sputtering process that produces significant ionization of the sputtered materials that, in turn, enables effective surface modification by ion etching and energetic deposition. Energetic deposition allows the formation of coatings with unique or superior properties compared to other deposition processes. Presently HIPIMS is undergoing the transition from academic research to being a major industrial process. 

The tutorial starts with a short introduction in the basics of HIPIMS technology. An extended treatment of HIPIMS is provided by the tutorial C-323 “High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering. The main focus of this tutorial is on commercially available equipment and its specifications as well as the general processing principles. Finally industrial (or close to industrial) applications will be presented.

Topical Outline:

1. Introduction to HIPIMS Technology

2. Industrial Equipment
   a. HIPIMS pulse generation
   b. Process control (reactive HIPIMS)
   c. HIPIMS diagnostics
   d. HIPIMS Coating systems

3. HIPIMS Applications
   a. HIPIMS etching
   b. Trench filling, Through via connection
   c. TCOs
   d. Hard coatings
     - nitrides
     - carbides
e. Optical coatings
 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Ralf Bandorf, Fraunhofer IST - Braunschweig, Germany
Instructor: Arutiun P. Ehiasarian, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-334 Manufacture of Precision Evaporative Coatings (full-day version of C-326)

This tutorial provides detailed information on how to establish and improve evaporative coating processes for precision optical coatings. Design considerations for coating chambers, such as source placement, substrate fixturing, control of film thickness uniformity, and thickness monitors will be discussed. Trade-offs in the selection of source materials, means of controlling film structure, and the influence on the performance of the coated component will be considered. Process details will be approached with a focus on practicality; film properties must be measurable and system designs must be practical and cost-effective. Measurement techniques will be discussed to identify the influence of the coating process, understanding film performance as well as characterizing shortcomings of process methods. These process concepts are readily implemented in standard evaporation systems, providing significant improvements in existing coating facilities.

Topical Outline:

1) Chamber Components
    a) Pumping
        i) Types of pumps and gauges
        ii) Cleanliness
        iii) Mean-free path
   b) Heating
        i) Influence on film structure
        ii) Types of heaters and output spectra
        iii) Risks in heating/cooling profiles (breakage)
   c) Gas Control
        i) Pressure control
        ii) Flow control
   d) Evaporant Sources
        i) Electron-beam guns (sweeps, material form, comparisons of different configurations)
        ii) Resistance sources (boats, filaments, material form)

2) Thin-film Monitoring
   a) Optical monitoring
        i) Single-wavelength (reflection, transmission, addressing limitations of each)
        ii) Broad-spectrum (data fitting, understanding of complexity in implementation)
   b) Quartz crystal monitoring
        i) Stability and control with a single monitor
        ii) Multi-point monitoring
        iii) Crystal changing due to dynamic calibration changes
        iv) Understanding of vapor plume through multiple crystal monitors

3) Thin-film Uniformity
   a) Simple rotation
        i) Uniformity calculations
        ii) Optimal source placement
        iii) Mask design for improved film distribution
   b) Domed, or pyramidal, rotation
        i) Improved system capacity
        ii) Uniformity and source determination
        iii) Masking
   c) Planetary Rotation
        i) Influence of gearing on achieved film uniformity, and optimal selection of gears
        ii) Optimal source placement
        iii) Characterization of uniformity using laser photometry (single wavelength)
        iv) Calculation of film distribution in a uniformity model
        v) Design and modeling of a corrective mask
        vi) Advanced planetary motion (tilted planets, domed planets)
   d) Impact of errors
        i) Changes in substrate height
        ii) Influence of tilt in a planet
   e) Uniformity measurement
        i) Spacing of measurements
        ii) Spectral versus laser-based

4) Thin-film stress
   a) Theoretical basis of stress
        i) Calculation of stress from Stoney’s equation
        ii) Thermal stresses
        iii) Intrinsic stresses
        iv) Structure zone models (Movchan & Demchishin, Thorton)
   b) Measurements of optics for determination of film stress
        i) Choice of substrate
        ii) Influence of interferometer wavelength and coating phase
        iii) Impact of humidity on thin-film stress
        iv) Aging of film stress
   c) Modifications to film stress by process changes
        i) Thermal
        ii) Pressure
        iii) Substrate material
        iv) Coating material
        v) Densification (ion sources, plasma sources)

5) Properties of Thin Films
   a) Optical constants of thin films
   b) Measurement of thin film performance
        i) Selection of substrate
        ii) Spectral measurements
        iii) Ellipsometric measurements
        iv) Laser-based measurements
        v) Scatter measurements
        vi) Defect counts
        vii) Laser damage thresholds
        viii) Surface roughness (AFM versus white light interferometry)
        ix) Film thickness (optical versus step-height measurements, and the problems with each)
        x) Interferometry and the influence of coating phase
        xi) Other evaluation techniques - XRD, XPS, ToF-SIMS, Auger, SEM/EDAX, TEM/Electron-Diffraction
   c) Modeling of film properties
   d) Influence of film properties on the design of optical thin films
   e) Process dependence on coating performance
 

Instructor: Jim Oliver, Vacuum Innovations, LLC and Univ. of Rochester LLE


This course is currently available via:
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C-335 Understanding Solar Cells (half day)

In addition to traditional semiconductors, photovoltaics technology now encompasses thin films, organic materials, low dimensional materials, nanotubes and biomaterials. This course provides an introduction to the basic principles of solar cell operation and photovoltaic devices (homojunction, heterojunction, p-n, and p-i-n structures) based on photoconductivity and photoactivation. Photocatalytic materials and selected photovoltaic technologies and systems will also be addressed. Principles of photoconductivity and solar cell operation will be presented using basic solid state physics and graphic examples. Specific examples addressed are semiconductor solar cells, Gratzel (dye sensitized) cells, organic cells and multijunction cells. This course will address current PV cell structures and power systems and the factors that are preventing them from achieving theoretical efficiencies.

Topical Outline:

•  Energy from the sun and heat sources
•  Semiconductor lattice structure
•  Electrical conductivity basics
•  Why semiconductors?
•  Semiconductor band structure
•  Photoconductivity mechanisms
•  Solar cell parameters
•  Materials
•  Bulk semiconductor cells
•  Dye sensitized solar cells
•  Photocatalytic materials
•  Organic solar cells
•  Advanced materials and designs
•  Future directions
 

For additional information on this course, view the Detailed Syllabus.

Instructor: Peter Martin, Columbia Basin Thin Film Solutions LLC


This course is currently available via:
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C-336 Transparent Gas Permeation Barriers on Flexible Substrates

This tutorial course will be of special value and interest to scientists, engineers, senior technical staff, and graduate students and anyone who want to learn the latest advances and applications in the specific field.

Thin transparent layers on polymer films are being used to drastically enhance the permeation barrier properties of polymer films while at the same time maintaining the flexibility and optical transparency of the polymer film. Applications range from food packaging films to encapsulation films for solar cells or flexible electronics.

This tutorial gives a comprehensive overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of transparent thin film permeation barriers. It covers a short overview about the scientific and technological fundamentals and their consequences for applications. Different permeation measurement principles and methods will be compared briefly. Single and multi-layer materials and technologies for the fabrication of thin film permeation barriers will be reviewed and evaluated regarding their suitability for different applications. Not only gas permeability but also optical properties, mechanical robustness and processing aspects will be discussed. Products and application examples will be discussed and an outlook about the current hot-topics in the field will be given.

Topical Outline:

• The need for barriers – products and requirements
• How to apply a barrier to your product - types of encapsulation
• Thin-film permeation physics and consequences for application
   - Permeation in polymers and solids
   - Models and mechanisms for permeation in thin films – the role of layer defects
   - Influence of measurement conditions (temperature, gas concentration, time)
   - Permeation in multi-layer stacks
• Overview about measurement-methods for barrier properties
   - Measurement concepts and methods
   - Typical measurement conditions
• Materials and Technologies for thin film barriers
   - Single and graded layer technologies
• Evaporation techniques
• Sputtering
• Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)
• Atomic layer deposition (ALD)
• Short note on other methods
   - Influence of substrate quality and processing on barrier performance
   - Multilayer technologies
   - Techniques for interlayer deposition
• Properties of multi-layer stacks compared to single layers
• Application examples and outlook
   - Devices and their performance
   - Functional films and substrates for flexible electronics
   - Direct encapsulation versus barrier film lamination
   - Economic aspects
 

This course was developed by John Fahlteich, Steffen Günther, Nicolas Schiller, and Matthias Fahland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, Dresden, Germany

Instructor: John Fahlteich, Fraunhofer FEP - Dresden, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-337 ITO and Alternative TCO: From Fundamentals to Controlling Properties

 

This tutorial course is intended for scientists, engineers, technicians, and others, interested in understanding the fundamentals, materials, deposition, manufacturing, properties and applications of TCO.

The tutorial explains doping and conductivity in Transparent Conductive Oxides (TCO) including, indium tin oxide (ITO), indium zinc oxide (IZO), and zinc oxide with various dopants, particularly aluminum (AZO) and gallium (GZO). Other alternative TCO, e.g., SnO2:F and IGZO, are included in examples. TCO deposition by magnetron sputtering is emphasized, although other methods, e.g., evaporation, CVD/pyrolysis and Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) are briefly described, but can be expanded based upon class interest. Specific examples of the TCO Optical/Electrical (O/E) properties achieved with various processes are shown. Developing a robust deposition process for TCO is explained. The importance of substrate temperature and the effect of post-deposition processing also are discussed. TCO properties achieved with high temperature processes, e.g., on glass substrates, and low temperature processes, e.g., roll-to-roll on flexible plastic substrates, are compared and the large differences explained. Designing and engineering of TCO O/E properties for specific applications by controlling deposition process parameters are explained. Many application examples are presented.

 

Topical Outline:

•  Introduction; history and review
•  Conductivity and transparency in metal oxides
•  Optical properties related to conductivity
•  TCO Performance expectations; Theory and ITO baseline
•  ZnO-based TCO
•  Performance of TCO grown by major deposition methods
•  Control of TCO film properties
•  Developing a robust deposition process; the “Resistivity Well”
•  Other TCO host materials and dopants
•  Designing and engineering TCO Optical/Electrical (O/E) properties: Application examples
•  Appendix I; Thin film optics
•  Appendix II; Advanced doping techniques
• Appendix III; TCO Environmental Performance

Instructor: Clark Bright, Bright Thin Film Solutions, LLC (retired 3M)


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-338 Application of Reactive Sputtering (half day or full day)

This tutorial covers the fundamentals of reactive sputtering for applications. A short introduction in reactive sputtering is given, dealing with the occurrence of hysteresis and ways to control the process. A theoretical description using the Berg model will motivate the understanding of the reactions involved in the coating chamber. Following the basics, different options for process control will be discussed. Especially for processes that drift towards compound mode the risk of arcing is increasing. Ways to control and avoid arcing will be discussed. Different sensors for the process control will be presented and discussed with respect to benefits and limitations of each one. Reactive process control for industrial processes will be addressed. The course will conclude with recent developments.

Instructor: Ralf Bandorf, Fraunhofer IST - Braunschweig, Germany
Instructor: Holger Gerdes, Fraunhofer IST - Braunschweig, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-339 Mechanical Heart Valve Thrombosis: An Introduction and Review (half day)

The course is addressed to: biotechnologists, medical professionals, biomedical engineers, physicists, surface engineers, mechanical engineers, thin film specialists, electronics engineers, and sensor developers. Participants should possess a basic minimum knowledge of the functions of the human heart and lungs. This is a comprehensive course on mechanical heart valves.

Over the past fifty years, more than 100 different mechanical heart valves have been designed and implanted. A large number of mechanical heart valves are being implanted worldwide; a large number of them are failing after implant. There are many challenges in the materials, design and surface engineering of mechanical heart valves. The primary aim of the course is to introduce the basic functions of heart valves; the course also aims at a review of the present status of the mechanical valves. The opportunities (in terms of design) and challenges of mechanical heart valves will be summarized.

Topical Outline:

- Introduction to Heart valves and valve functions
- Basics of Haemodynamics
- Basic understanding of thrombosis and embolism (coagulation cascade is beyond the course content)
- Basics of prosthetic heart valves : problems and management
- Mechanical heart valves: designs and evolution
- Mechanical heart valves: basic working principles
- Mechanical heart valves: problems and management
- Comparison of performance of contemporary mechanical heart valves
- Mechanical versus prosthetic valves: advantages and disadvantages
- Criteria for mechanical valve replacement
- Valve dysfunctions: Obstructive thrombosis, Pannus (over growth of fibrous tissue and impairment in leaflet movement) and diagnostic techniques
- Engineers’ perspective of surface and surface engineering of mechanical valves
- Thin film coatings for next generation mechanical heart valves : management of thrombosis and incorporation of sensor technology
- Diagnostic techniques for heart valve monitoring: existing and emerging sensors and techniques
- Concept of early warning (eWAR) of mechanical heart valve failure

Instructor: Aryasomayajula Subrahmanyam (Manu), Indian Institute of Technology Madras - Chennai, India


This course is currently available via:
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C-340 Plastic Optics - Coatings and Antireflective Structures (half day)

Modern optical applications need solutions for the antireflective equipment of polymer surfaces. The problems for coating comprise thermal limitations, incompatible mechanical properties of coating and substrate materials and the interaction between polymers and plasma. This course provides attendees with a basic knowledge of transparent polymer materials for optical applications. The course concentrates on polymer material properties, coating processes suitable for polymers, interactions between polymers and plasma, adhesion, stress, interference layers for polymers, hard coatings, top-layers to control the wettability and evaluation and testing procedures.

The course especially concentrates on antireflection coatings and antireflective sub-wavelength structures. The potential to produce antireflective interference coatings is shown for plasma-assisted vacuum deposition techniques as well as for sol-gel wet chemical processes. In addition, various procedures to obtain antireflective structures on polymers will be explained. Special solutions are discussed for acrylic, polycarbonate and cycloolefine polymers.

This course is of use for anyone who would like to get an overview about the problems connected with coating plastics. It is addressed to newcomers and experts on technical and high school level and to engineer and science students of higher terms.

Topical Outline:

 This course should enable you to:
• Specify the best suitable polymer materials for your application;
• Understand the special behavior of polymers during vacuum coating processes;
• Evaluate different techniques for antireflection of polymer surfaces; and
• Define suitable characterization tools and testing procedure for your plastic optics.

Instructor: Ulrike Schulz, Fraunhofer IOF - Jena, Germany


This course is currently available via:
On Location Education Program


C-341 Processing on Flexible Glass – Challenges and Opportunities NEW!

One of the most innovative and developed flexible transparent substrate materials in the last few years is flexible glass. This Tutorial course is intended for engineers, technicians, and others involved with vapor deposition of thin films by magnetron sputtering, and who is interested in a better understanding of challenges and opportunities of thin film processing on flexible glass.

With thicknesses below 200 μm glass is thin enough to be flexible and opens as a new substrate material a wide range of new application fields. For applications - e.g., displays, OLEDs, or sensors - flexible glass enables realization of thin, light, robust, curved, and conformable devices.

Besides the challenge of substrate handling, the functionalization of the surface by thin films using PVD deposition methods also has to be optimized for further processing of a device. The thermal and dimensional stability of the coated substrate influences device fabrication and processing in sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll.

Due to the low thickness of flexible glass, the handling generally presents challenges for manufacturers of thin-film coatings. Mechanical film stress is here one of the main influences of the bendability of flexible glass. The sputtering process parameters have to be adjusted for multiple processing procedures, to improve processing stability and manufacturing of high quality films. Experimental results will be used to illustrate the challenges during thin film processing on flexible glass. The influence of selected process parameter for high deposition rate sputtering on the film- and substrate-stress will be discussed. Several examples of functional layer stacks on flexible glass, such as transparent conductive coatings, anti-reflective coatings, and infrared-blocking coatings including their properties will be demonstrated. The properties of these functional layers and layer stacks will be compared with those on flexible polymer substrates.

Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) are also key materials in optoelectronic applications; mainly indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium zinc-oxide (IZO) are the most popular materials. For highly conductive TCO films thermal pre and post- annealing process steps are standard in film processing. Recently, ultra-short time annealing methods like flash lamp annealing (FLA) in the millisecond time-range, are gaining more importance for improved performance of thin films and surfaces refinement and will be also discussed in this Tutorial. The ability of FLA enables new options for high quality TCO film fabrication, also on flexible glass.

The focus of the Tutorial is pointing out critical parameters of thin-film sputter deposition for an improved handling and performance of flexible glass, and will showing possible path ways forward for optimized thin film processing on flexible glass. The Tutorial course concludes with a detailed discussion of the challenges, chances and solutions of flexible glass processing.

Topical Outline:

- Introduction
- Application fields for flexible glass
- Properties of flexible glass
   • Mechanical properties
- Advanced processing and handling of flexible glass
   • Sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll processes of inorganic and organic films
   • The role of film stress on the reliability
   • Large area coatings
   • Optimized magnetron sputtering processes for low film stress depositions
   • Substrate handling
   • Post treatment of thin films by flash lamp annealing (FLA)
- Examples for functional layer and layer stack processing on flexible glass
   • Infrared blockers (IR)
   • Anti-reflecting coatings (AR)
   • Transparent electrodes based on transparent conductive oxides (TCOs)
   • Organic emitting diodes (OLED)
- Summary
- Discussion

Instructor: Manuela Junghähnel, Fraunhofer FEP - Dresden, Germany


This course is currently available via:
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